CTI Bibliography of Technical Papers - Cooling Tower Water Blowdown Treatment

Revised 2007

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Cooling Tower Water Blowdown Treatment
Order NumberTitleAuthorDate
Zero Blowdown for Cooling Towers Sam Owens, CHEMCO International, Inc. 2007
Abstract: Converting water hardness and silica to an environmentally desirable complex is the result of new cooling water treatment chemistry. Over 95% of standard blowdown water is saved and reused providing significant water savings. This unique chemical approach provides multimetal corrosion control. Solubility of the new product is greater than 45% in ambient water. Solubility increases with temperature elevation. The highly soluble hardness chemical undergoes a separate reaction forming a fluid concentrate to be removed intermittently. Silica removal is maintained at less than 100 ppm. This new chemistry approach provides exceptional water savings in hard, alkaline cooling waters.
Cooling Tower Blowdown Limitations: Case Studies of New Wastewater Permit Limits Jennifer Cunningham, Air Liquide Large Industries US LP 2006
Abstract: For many Air Liquide facilities, the wastewater permit limitations have become stricter (Total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, total residual chlorine, copper, and arsenic). This paper will describe the new wastewater permit parameters, the method(s) that were used to resolve the issues, and the cost of justification.
Copper Removal from Cooling Tower Blowdowns Christopher Howell and David Christophersen, Crown Solutions, Inc. 2006
Abstract: Cooling tower blowdown discharge limits for inorganic metals are being lowered more and more. This paper will document a case of a large cooling tower application in the Gulf Coast that had a 17 parts per billion (ppb) discharge limit placed on it and how ultra filtration membrane technology was used successfully to lower the cooling tower Blowdown copper concentration from 400 ppb to less than 17 ppb.
Hero Process - Recovery Reuse of Cooling Tower Blowdown and as a Preconcentrator for ZLD Application Charles H. Fritz, P.E., Black & Veatch Corporation &V.J. Nathan, Aquatech International Corporation 2001
Abstract: Silica concentration frequently limits the cycles of concentration in cooling tower-circulating water. This is particularly true in areas like the Western and Southwestern States and Mexico where the feed raw water has high silica. HERO patented process addresses the treatment of high silica feed water and hence treatment of cooling tower blow down enabling the recovery and reuse of the blow down water. This helps in increasing the cycles of concentration of the cooling tower and also reduces the size of the disposal pond or a brine concentrator in case of a zero discharge permit plant. 
An Innovation in Chromate Removal (TP-84-19) Stephen B. Gale Ph.D. & Philip P. O'Dennelle, Niagara Environmental Associates 1984
Abstract: Electro-chemical reduction of hexavalent chromate to the insoluble trivalent chromium salts has been an established process. However, high conductivity, high pH, high suspended solids and/or organic contamination could foul electrode surfaces, resulting in loss of chromate removal capacity and high operator maintenance. A new electrolytic process has been developed which overcomes these problems and shows additional advantages over the old type process actual operating data is presented along with an economic evaluation of the new process.
Chromate Handling Systems for Cooling Tower Blowdown (TP-192A) Fred Roensch, Anita Feltes & A.W. Oberhofer, Nalco Chemical Co. 1978
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Hexavalent Chromium Reduction in Cooling Tower Blowdown-Evaluation of the Electrolytic Process (TP-167A) A.J. Reitano, Jr. & R.R. Lessard Exxon Research & Eng. Co. 1977
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The Reduction of Chromate by Amine Phosphonates at a Low pH (TP-172A) S.B. Twitchell & R.J. Lipinski, The Mogul Corporation 1977
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Electrochemical Destruction of Chromate and Zinc From Cooling Tower Water (TP-156A) C.R. Schmitt & J.R. DeMonbrum, Union Carbide Corp. 1976
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Operating Experience with the Electro-Chemical Chromate Removal Unit (TP-139A) Joseph G. Duffey & Stephen B. Gale, Andco, Inc., Stanley Bruckenstein, State Univ. of New York at Buffalo 1975
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Fuildized Moving Bed Ion Exchange for Treatment of Cooling Towers Blowdown (TP-111A) J. Newman, Liquitech, Inc. 1973
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Amberlite IRC-84 in Treatment of Water for Cooling Towers (TP-21B) D.G. Downing, J. Printz & D.L. Owens, Rohm and Haas Co. 1960
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