CTI Bibliography of Technical Papers - Cooling Tower Water Chemistry

Revised 2016

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Cooling Tower Water Chemistry
Order NumberTitleAuthorDate
Application of Flow Cytometry to Rapid Microbiological Analysis of Cooling Water Kelly Lipps and Doug McIlwaine, Ph.D., ChemTreat, Inc. 2016
Abstract: Microbiological growth on cooling towers, heat exchangers and piping cause a multitude of issues including microbiologically-influenced corrosion, reduced heat transfer, fill fouling, increased fluid frictional resistance, and dispersion of airborne pathogens such as Legionella. Rapid and effective microbiological monitoring is the key to ensuring that cooling water systems operate safely and efficiently. Flow cytometry has been used for many years in medical applications that involve cell counting and sorting, particularly in cancer research and diagnostics. The ability of flow cytometry to rapidly identify and enumerate large quantities of nano-scale particles and their fluorescent properties creates vast opportunities for applications in bacteria identification and monitoring. This paper examines the use flow cytometry in conjunction with fluorescent nucleic acid and bacteria stains to rapidly enumerate live and dead bacteria in industrial cooling water samples. Staining methods as a means of identifying particular species, such as Legionella, and cell viability studies using nucleic acid stains are discussed.
Forward Osmosis Applied to Evaporative Cooling Make-Up Water Peter Nicoll and Neil Thompson, Modern Water Plc 2012
Abstract: Modern Water is in the process of developing a number of manipulated / forward osmosis based technologies, ranging from desalination to power generation. This paper outlines the progress made to date on the development and commercial deployment of a forward osmosis process applied to evaporative cooling tower make-up water. This new technology shows significant promise in allowing various raw water sources, such as seawater, to be used directly in the manipulated osmosis step, thus releasing the use of scarce and valuable higher grade water for other more important uses. The paper presents theoretical and operational results for the process, where it is shown that the process can produce make-up water at a fraction of the opex of conventional processes. In particular power consumption which in some cases may be as low as 15%, compared to competing processes. Chemical additives to the cooling water (osmotic agent) are retained within the process, thus reducing their overall consumption. Furthermore the chemistry of the cooling water does not support the growth of Legionella pneumophila.
Oil-In-Water UV Fluorescence Sensor In Cooling Tower And Other Industrial Applications Vadim B. Malkov, Hach 2010
Abstract: In order to simplify and accelerate the analyses of oil and grease in industrial waters, particularly used in cooling water in heat exchangers, a UV-fluorescent sensor sensitive to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) being part of refined oil products was tested. The testing was also conducted in several applications involving wastewater treatment and confirmed a relationship between oil-in-water concentration and content of the PAH. While qualitative response is always strong and fast, OIW quantification can be achieved in samples containing stable content and type of oils.
Use of New Generation Polymer for Clarification of Water Sanjay Kumar Dubey and Lim Aun Siong - Genting Sanyen Power SDN BHD 2009
Abstract: Kuala Langat Power Plant (KLPP) draws water from Kuala Langat River. The quality of river water varies significantly from season to season due to the influence of rainfall and surface water runoff. The turbidity of river water varies in the range of 70-500 NTU with lower value typically noted in the summer and higher value during rainy season. Conventional chemicals such as Alum & Lime were used for pretreatment of water. As per Malaysian Environmental laws alum sludge is categorized as scheduled waste. Hence, an alternative environment friendly & biodegradable Poly diallyldimethylammonium chloride (DADMAC) studied for pre-treatment of water. Laboratory test and plant trial were conducted using poly DADMAC as coagulant for pretreatment of water. It is observed that 2.0 ppm of poly DADMAC is effective for removal of turbidity up to 300 NTU and higher concentration. Zeta potential was observed to be in the range of -1.8 to -3.7 ICU indicates strong agglomeration & precipitation tendency. The treatment does not alter pH & conductivity of treated water and treatment cost is in agreement with Alum & Lime treatment.
Intermittent Feeding of Aseptrol Tablet Redefines the Role of C1O2 in Small and Mid-Sized Cooling Water Systems Keith Hirsch, BASF Corporation 2008
Abstract: Chlorine Dioxide is a powerful, broad-spectrum biocide with particular efficacy against algae and slime, and tolerance of high pH and water system contaminants. Until the introduction of BASF Aseptrol tablets, the use of ClO2 was limited to later systems by the capital cost and complexity of on-site generators.
Experience with Monitoring and Control of Microbiological Growth Due to Hydrocarbon Ingress in Open Cooling Water System Arif Jaffer, Fred Chastain and Jennifer Fichter, Baker Hughes/Baker Petrolite 2006
Abstract: Monitoring and controlling microbial growth is vital to the success of a comprehensive cooling water treatment program. Hydrocarbon ingress to the cooling water requires novel approaches to control microbiological fouling. An understanding of the factors that affect microbial growth rates and the components of an effective bacterial mitigation program can minimize the severity of biofouling in the cooling water system. Experience obtained over the years has allowed development of guidelines that minimize microbiological growth and prevent shut down of the plant during hydrocarbon excursions. This paper examines one case study that illustrates the performance of a biocide treatment program and the importance of correct monitoring in a hydrocarbon environment.
Methods for Chlorine Control in Critical Cooling Towers Stephen A. Wortendyke, Capital Controls Co., Inc. 1996
Abstract: The precise and continuous monitoring of chlorine residual at low levels is essential to the efficient operation of cooling towers. The challenge is to control chlorine low enough to maximize the efficiency of the tower and high enough to control slime and bacterial growth. This paper will review the methods in use today to control chlorine and review a case study that tried most of these methods.
Traced Biocides: A New Technology for Industrial Water Treatment William F. McCoy, Scott A. Borchardt, Mark R. Hermiller, Nalco Chemical Company 1995
Abstract: Cooling water systems are susceptible to microbiofouling, more now than ever before. Operating conditions increasingly utilize alkaline pH, less toxic corrosion inhibitors, higher concentration ratios and use of reclaimed makeup water. Traced biocides are a major step forward in biocontrol technology. Benefits in clued precise documentation and on-line control of product feed and discharge, measurement of actual system consumption, measurement of biocide concentration gradients and flexibility in treatment protocol. Results from extensive laboratory studies, field trials and a case history demonstrate the new technology in situations of constant system consumption and upset conditions where biocide is inadvertently depleted.
Hypohalous Acid and Haloamine Flashoff in Industrial Evaporative Cooling Systems (TP-90-09) William F. McCoy, Great Lakes Chemical Corporation 1990
Abstract: The application of hypohalous acids and haloamines as industrial antimicrobials for evaporative cooling systems is an essential technology. One process that can affect the fate of oxidizing halogen in recirculating cooling water is flashoff (forced-air stripping). However, flashoff of bromine has never been studied. This subject is important because of the increasing use of bromine chemistry for industrial water treatment. Quantitative volatility comparison of hypohalous acids and certain haloamines were obtained by determining the Henry's law constant (air-water partition coefficient) in air-stripping towers. The order of decreasing volatility is ozone > chloramines > hypochlorous acid . hypobromous acid, where ozone is about 167,000 times more volatile than bromine at 20 oC. The data show that hypobromous acid is the least volatile oxidizing industrial in use today.
The Importance of Crystal Structure to the Water Treatment Industry (TP-86-06) Gary Caplan, Bird Archer, Inc. 1986
Abstract: One of the most persistent problems facing the water treatment industry today is the occurrence of fouled heat transfer surfaces. Crystallization of inorganic salts having inverse solubility is one of the most common reasons for this phenomenon. Part 1 of the paper overviews the topic of crystal structure where concepts of crystal lattice, coordination principle, ionic radii and miller indices are explained. Part 2 of the article deals with crystal structure in terms of water treatment applications. Calcium carbonate (calcite, aragonite) and calcium sulfate (for gypsum, anhydrite) are discussed in detail along with the concept of applying crystal modifiers to inhibit scale formation in cooling waters
Minimizing Calcium Phosphate Fouling and Associated Pitting Rates (TP-84-12) Paul Labine, J. Minalga, D. King & W. Norman, Petrolite Corp. 1984
Abstract: Relative heat transfer rate data from experimental cooling tower tests and a field test will be used to show the effectiveness of various calcium phosphate dispersants in minimizing fouling. Pitting corrosion rates obtained by potentiodynamic polarization techniques will be presented in addition to general corrosion rates obtained by linear polarization techniques. The effect of molecular weight and polydispersity of dispersants will be discussed.
Log Diagram Predicts Chemical Performance on Calcium Carbonate (TP-272A) William S. Midkiff, Ph.D P.E., Industrial Water Engineering, Inc. 1983
Abstract: A graphic technique is used to show that the amount of calcium carbonite kept in solution by a HEDP phosphonate is a constant, regardless of pH. Imperical data can be used for this or other scale inhibiting chemicals to determine this constant.
Sewage Effluent Make-Up to Cooling Towers with Film Fill (TP-252A) Kenneth Lindemann, Southern Public Service Company 1982
Abstract: Southwestern Public Service Company has two towers operating one sewage effluent make-up that have film fill. This paper will look at the water treatment and the operating experience on these towers. One tower has been in operation since 1976 and the other since 1980. The effect of algae and slime on the fill will be discussed.
Bibliography on the Use of High Dissolved Solids Waters in Cooling Towers (TP-215B) Cooling Tower Institute's Task Group on the use of High Dissolved Solids Waters in Cooling Towers 1980
Abstract: The objective of the Task Group on the Use of High Dissolved Solids Waters in Cooling Towers is the preparation of guidelines summarizing the best available information on 1) selection of materials for cooling tower water system construction, 2) common operating problems, and 3) methods for preventing or correcting these problems.
Reduction of Sulfate Concentration in Circulating Water (TP-198A) Karel Zadera RMC, Corp., Raymond E. Kerollis, Kerrolis Associates 1979
Copper Ion Pickup in Recirculation Cooling Tower Systems (TP-177A) Stephen F. Hager & James M. Popplewell 1977
Silica Species as Stabilizers of Stagnant Water Films (TP-170A) Roy V. Comezux, Exxon Research& Engineering Co. 1977
Amorphous Silica Scale in Cooling Waters (TP-148A) William S. Midkiff, Ph.D.& H. Pressley Foyt, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory 1976

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