CTI Bibliography of Technical Papers - Cooling Tower Water Treatment Programs

Revised 2016

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Cooling Tower Water Treatment Programs
Order NumberTitleAuthorDate
Cooling Water Scale And Corrosion Monitoring L.J. Aspinall, Aquatech International; Brian Bloxam, CF Industries 2016
Abstract: The paper reports the results of the first field evaluation of the Test Heat Exchanger Skid used to monitor scale and corrosion of a cooling water system at skin temperature and velocity.
A Progress Report of a Field Evaluation of a Cooling Tower System and the Effectiveness of an Electrodynamic Pulse Field Water Treatment Paul R. Puckorius, Puckorius & Associates, Inc. and Richard Ruckstuhl, Jr., CWT Waterhouse Corporation 2015
Abstract: This is the continuation of the detailed independent evaluation of microbiological, corrosion and deposit control effectiveness in a HVAC cooling tower system over a period of two years only with a non-chemical water treatment system. These new results include the evaluation of the cooling tower water quality for both sessile and planktonic microbes and the impact of city water chlorination on bio-control and the effectiveness for scale and corrosion control.
Controlled Hydrodynamic Cavitation for Cooling Tower Water Treatment David Burge, EcoWater CHC 2015
Abstract: Combining Controlled Hydrodynamic Cavitation treatment with filtration and process controls provides a complete solution for treating cooling tower water that: lowering operating costs, reduce water consumption, reduce discharge to sewer, eliminate chemical usage, improve system energy efficiency, lower maintenance costs, manage debris in the cooling system, protect assets from corrosion chemical overtreatment and improve worker safety.
Cooling Water Microbial Control Impacts Overall Plant Performance Kevin Boudreaux and Aaron Haines, Nalco 2014
Abstract: Microbial inhibition, as part of a robust cooling water treatment program, presents a special challenge because of the variability in makeup water sources, plant processes, and discharge permits. Failure to maintain a proper microbial inhibition program will affect your bottom line as a result of heat rate degradation. This paper discusses how the plant designed and implemented a trial to determine the costs and effects of improved microbial inhibition practices. Results of the trial, as well as how the results were used to justify the costs for new feed equipment, will also be discussed.
Comparison of Chlorination Monitoring Methods in Cooling Water Systems Trey Cook, Michale Dorsey and Matt Walker of DuPont 2014
Abstract: One of the most difficult chemistry parameters to control in a cooling water system is Free Halogen levels. There are many reasons for this but primarily Halogen is different from every other type of water treatment because unlike other water treatment chemicals halogens are continuously being consumed or depleted. Chemicals that make up free halogens like Chlorine, Bromine, and Chlorine Dioxided are very strong oxidants and as such are actively depleted by things like UV from sunlight, microbiological activity in the water as well as other treatment chemicals.
Efficient Polymer Use in Cooling Tower Makeup Water Treatment at Coal-Fired Power Plant Etienne Prehoda and Yong Kim, Prominent Fluid Controls; Emily Vsetecka, Sunflower Electric Power Corporation 2014
Abstract: The Sunflower Electric Power Corporation operates a 349-MW coal-fired power plant with a zero liquid discharge policy. As part of the cooling tower makeup water treatment, polymer is used along with ferric sulfate in the lime/soda ash softening process in a reactor-type clarifier. Understanding fluid dynamics and polymer chemistry is critical in designing effective mixing equipment to maximize the value of high molecular weight polymer. The high efficiency polymer make-down system has provided Sunflower Electric Power Plant with consistent operation and greater performance of the clarifier and reduced the potential of a hazardous work environment.
Development and application of Phosphorus Free Cooling Water Technology Raymond M. Post, P.E and Richard Tribble, ChemTreat, Inc. 2014
Abstract: Phosphate based corrosion and scale inhibitor programs emerged as the cooling water technology of choice when the water treatment industry was strongly encouraged to eliminate chromates some 35 years ago. At the time we were certainly aware of the control without forming phosphate deposites on hot bundles problems with admiralty brass corrosion using only azoles, and troubles with well water iron and aluminum carryover interacting with the phosphate and escalating dispersant demand. Of course we could see the increased algae growth on the towers, and covered many tower decks and increased chlorine and biocide usage in response. We were also aware of impending phosphorus based cooling water programs, because there simply persisted in perfecting phosphorus based cooling water programs, because there simply was no reasonable alternative…until now. This paper describes the development of a promising phosphorus free corrosion and deposit control program including laboratory and field application performance data in several challenging applications.
pH Impact on Inhibitor Performance Robert J. Ferguson, French Creek Software, Inc. 2014
Abstract: Water treatment chemists have long observed that some scale inhibitors work better at high pH rather than low pH, and that some inhibitors have little, if any activity at very low pH. Examples would be the effectiveness of polyacrylic acid at high pH as a calcium carbonate inhibitor, as in ash sluice and some mining applications, mediocre performance near a neutral pH, as in cooling water applications, and very low activity in an acid pH range, as in gypsum control in the pH range from 2 to 4. This paper provides a framework for evaluating relative inhibitor activity using dissociation profiles for common inhibitors and calculating the distribution of inhibitor species versus pH. Minimum effective dosages and inhibitor species concentrations are used to calculate the relative efficacy of different dissociation states for common technical grade scale inhibitors.
Noise Control of Water Cooling Towers in Rome’s Hospital Area Augusto Papa, PhD, Italian Workers Compensation Authority 2014
Abstract: The study concerns a noise impact prediction, in order to establish compliance according to the contract, of new water cooling towers that will be installed following the completion of a modern central cooling subservient to the General Hospital “A. Gemelli” in Rome. To characterize the existing cooling towers of the refrigeration unit, and to detect the residual noise of the area, sound level measurements were carried out during the night. These samples, together the data of sound emission of the new sources (certified by the manufacturer), were used in order to build the prediction noise scenarios using the “CADNA” software and other appropriate algorithms.
Should I Use a Chemical Treatment Program for My Tower or a Physical Device? Robert J. Cunningham, Arthur Freedman Associates 2013
Abstract: The appeal of non-chemical treatment alternatives cannot be ignored by specifiers and users. With these “physical treatment” devices you can eliminate the reported disadvantages of handling and inventorying chemicals; reduce you environmental concern; and qualify for Leeds Credits. The only question is “Do they work?” The author presents his recommendations for the types of information you need to make a good decision and provides case histories and documentation for the material presented.
Condenser Performance Monitoring Daniel M. Cicero, Nalco Company 2013
Abstract: A myriad of mechanical, operational and chemical factors impact condenser performance. Quantifying the impact of a chemical change or troubleshooting a performance problem can consume a lot of resources and the benefits obtained can be fleeting. This paper presents several cases where condenser performance monitoring tools quickly and accurately documented condenser performance changes and highlighted the value of making those changes.
A Synergistic Combination of Advanced Separation and Chemical Scale Inhibitor Technologies for Efficient Use of Impaired Water in Cooling Water Jasbir S Gill, Ph.D. 2012
Abstract: Water is essential to thermoelectric power plants, used primarily for cooling. Using impaired water in place of fresh water is a potentially attractive solution to the problems of water scarcity and competing demands. Nalco was awarded DOE grant to develop a cost effective integrated solution (chemical and physical) for the use of impaired water and maximize the cycles of concentration. Argon National Laboratories under CRADA demonstrated the use of ED/RWEDI while Nalco developed scale inhibitors for the integrated solution
Novel Ultrasonic Microbiological Control System From Ashland Improves Cooling Water Treatment John Chapman, Ashland Water Technologies, Frank Florio, Ashland Water Technologies and Charles Edward, Mitsubishi Polyester Films, Inc 2012
Abstract: Improving worker safety, employing environmentally responsible technologies and managing costs are key objectives in water treatment program selection for many industrial facilities. Ultrasonic technology Is a non-chemical treatment approach that has been proven successful in meeting these objectives. This paper will review this novel technology and provide an in-depth case study of a plant that implemented the ultrasonic technology. Program benefits include the elimination of traditional chemical biocide feed, storage and handling, improved cooling tower cleanliness, reduced corrosion, and water saving of more than 2.7 million gallons of water per year.
Green Technologies: Electronic Water Treatment System Successfully Evaluated for Water Conservation Rodrigo F.V. Romo, Zeta Corporation and Soloman Williams, Air Force Civil Engineer Agency (Retired) 2012
Abstract: The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratory and the Air Force Civil Engineer Agency evaluated a high voltage capacitance-based water treatment technology in evaporative cooling systems at four military installations in an extended study. The non-chemical technology ws evaluated for control and prevention of corrosion, scaling and biological fouling in a side-by-side comparison to standard chemical treatment. Results confirmed that the technology delivered an average 20% reduction in make-up water and 48% reduction in blow-down wastewater, contributing to water conservation goals for agencies established under Executive Order 13423. This paper presents the findings from the study.
Polymer Detection in High Halogen Power Plant Cooling System Application John P. Pilsits and Jasbir Gill, Ph.D., Nalco Company 2012
Abstract: High cycle operation, highly variable make-up water chemistry, and intermittent halogenations: all these factors make power plant cooling systems some of the most challenging to manage. Proper polymer monitoring allows one to understand true demand factors versus other artifacts that might negatively impact control. This paper discusses how high level halogen applications should be managed to provide optimal polymer control. Lab data will be presented, along with actual application data collected in a highly stressed power plant cooling system.
Going it Alone: Lessons Learned from Managing Our Own Water Treatment Program John Young, P.E., Cree, Inc. 2012
Abstract: LED lighting manufacturer Cree took the management of water treatment for its numerous HVAC and process cooling systems in house after 12 years of full service water treatment from a national water treatment company. Cree now buys chemicals and treats its systems on their own. The road to independence was at times bumpy, but in the end it proved to be an extremely rewarding journey.
An Improved Method For Calculating Calcium Carbonate Deposition On Heat Transfer Surfaces Michael Coughlin, Diversey Inc. 2011
Abstract: By definition, when pH Actual = pH Saturation, the LSI is zero. However in special cases where these terms are greater than 6.5, an alternative index, the RSI, predicts CaCO3 dissolution. Conversely when the terms are equal but less than 6.5, the RSI predicts CaCO3 deposition. Furthermore, when there is virtually no calcium but ample alkalinity present, both conventional indices predict scaling when in fact none will occur. A new index is proposed that predicts not only scaling tendency but the amount of CaCO3 precipitation. The precipitation is always proportional to the water's alkalinity, calcium, TDS and temperature.
What is The Best Treatment for my Tower? Bob Cunningham, Arthur Freedman and Associates, Inc 2010
Abstract: This paper discusses the factors that must be considered in deciding not only what treatment program should be employed, but also what the testing, control, and monitoring protocols should look like. The primary factors that must be considered, in no particular order, are the following: equipment selection, design, metallurgy, and planned operation; critical temperature and flow considerations; available make-up water chemistry and variability; discharge criteria; plant health and safety considerations and availability of ancillary mechanical treatment systems.
Defining "Green" Technology in Cooling Water Systems Operation and Cooling Water Treatment James Green - Heisler Green 2009
Abstract: Many organizations use the marketing labeling of "Green" to increase profit margins and revenue. This paper researches technology to aid in defining the term "Green" as it applies to cooling water systems. This paper will examine current Green definitions from around the world, EPA standards, and materials/controls available to help operators understand the term "Green" as definable and measurable, with attainable standards. This paper will review current installations of Green chemistry and technology to provide a case study and basis for Green technology, its application, and financial/operational savings in the variations required to address small, medium and large markets.
The Design and Implementations of Physical water Treatment Technology in Large Flow Industrial Applications David McLachlan and Allen Wilson - Fluid Treatment Solutions, Inc. 2009
Abstract: This paper reviews the design and installation associated with three large cooling towers with capacities from 4,000 tons to 10,000 tons. These installations are connected with a hospital, a university, and a convention center and have operational durations of 2 to 3 seasonal cycles. These design concepts give great flexibility and can be implemented in industrial applications of 100,000 GPM for most scale control requirements. The design of these PWT systems, its installation, and their results will be delineated. Data on COC, conductivity, pH, with the resulting biological, corrosion and scale control results presented.
Progressing the Frontier of Cooling Water Process Control Kevin, Milici and Gary Geiger - GE Water and Process Technologies 2009
Abstract: For the past several decades, industrial and non-industrial users and operators of open cooling water systems have realized a steady stream of developments and innovations in the automation and control of cooling water system chemistry. This paper discusses the performance of a new innovation for the measurement and control of polymeric dispersants used in cooling water systems and the advance moves in the industry towards the inevitable desire and efficiency of the direct measurement of functional treatment chemistries for the control and optimization of scale, deposit and corrosion because of its implicit purity, simplicity and logic.
The Application of Solid Water Treatment Chemistry for Cooling Towers Fred Lattin and James Heimert, Aptech Group, Inc. 2008
Abstract: Industry's use of water treatment chemistry is well documented. Because of the physical nature of the liquid products being employed, these diluted liquids are shipped as corrosives andare hazardous to handle and apply.
New Solutions to Old Problems: Technical Innovation in Mature Markets Daniel M. Cicero, Nalco Company 2008
Abstract: Breakthrough innovation can take years of development work and millions of dollars to bring to market. These challenges make truly new, innovative technologies in mature markets rare. This paper discusses the challenges facing market leaders in the industrial water treatment market. Specific topics include market analysis, portfolio management, development of the value proposition, the commercialization and rollout process, and post-launch support. A number of real-world examples - from relatively simple, chemical-only solutions to highly complex, fully integrated offerings combining chemicals, equipment, and information technologies - will be used to illustrate how the challenges can be overcome.
Improved Calcium Phosphate Control For Stressed Systems Gary Geiger, GE Water and Process Technologies 2008
Abstract: Inorganic phosphate is the most widely used mild steel corrosion inhibitor for open recirculating cooling water systems. However, effective control of calcium phosphate precipitation must be maintained both in the recirculating cooling water and at heated surfaces if corrosion is to be controlled without a loss of heat transfer efficiency. Over the past 30 years notable advances have been made in polymeric dispersant technologies that have improved calcium phosphate control. This paper discusses the performance under stressed conditions.
Physical Water Treatment for Cooling Towers David McLachlan, Fluid Treatment Solutions, Inc. 2008
Abstract: This paper will review the fundamental operational principals found in the main physical water treatment systems; pressure, UV, magnetics, induced (pulsed), and static electric fields. Both scientific and empirical data will be presented. Field data will be obtained for small to large cooling towers. Data on COC, pH, conductivity, as well as scale, corrosion, and biological control will be covered.
Dolphin 'Pulsed Power' Cooling Water Treatment David Alley, Clearwater Systems and Paul Puckorius, Puckorius and Associates 2008
Abstract: A sequential study was conducted comparing water treatment performance of traditional chemical water treatment and Dolphin "pulsed power" water treatment. The study was conducted on the cooling tower for the University of Colorado (Boulder) ice rink. Feed water for the tower was Boulder city water. Parameters evaluated were scaling, total bacteria, and uniform corrosion. Dolphin "pulsed power" water treatment was found to perform as well or better than chemical treatment when judged by appearance of the chiller and tower fill, total bacteria counts, corrosion coupons and cycles of concentration. Water, energy, manpower and safely issues are presented.
A Low-Cost, Safe, Effective Halogen Disinfectant for Cooling Towers Rodney Herrington and Susan B. Rivera, Miox Corporation 2008
Abstract: On-site, on-demand generation of MIOX (mixed oxidant disinfecting solution) provides several advantages for the cooling tower industry. These include excellent control of microbial populations even at the elevated pH typical of cooling tower waters, no negative impact on traditional scale and corrosion inhibitors, and environmentally friendly operating conditions. As an inherently safe technology, it only uses common sodium chloride salt as a feed stock. The solution can be fed directly to the cooling tower and controlled via ORP (Oxidation Reduction Potential). Operational sites have demonstrated significant reductions in operational costs when compared to conventional bromine or chlorine chemicals.
Tracking Molybdate in Cooling Water Vadim B. Malkov and Phil Kiser, Hach Company
Blaine Nagao, Chemical, Inc
Steve Dumler, H2Tronics
Abstract: Molybdate-based chemicals have been used as corrosion inhibitors in cooling tower systems for several years. Although they provide superior performance, levels of molybdate have been reduced because of large price increases. It has become more necessary to control molybdate levels to optimize performance versus cost in corrosion inhibition. A new one line analyzer has been developed that can measure molybdate as molybdenum (Mo6+) with minimum maintenance. This analyzer can be used to monitor remotely when connected to data acquisition system with web based reporting. Two of these complete systems have been evaluated for several months at two sites in Texas. Comparisons have been conducted versus both bench tests. This paper will discuss results of current testing and features of the web-based monitoring system with graphs and charts illustrating its performance.
Cooling Tower FRP Color Considerations Clinton Smith, Strongwell 2007
Abstract: The standard Cooling Tower Shade is a dark gray which at Strongwell is known as slate gray. The slate gray shade typically resists color changes when exposed to UV better than other pigmentations. Occasionally, Cooling Tower customers request other shades for their applications such as beige (tan) or light gray. The purpose of this paper is to discuss what is involved in changing the shade for the Cooling Tower applications and what pitfalls could occur with other pigmentations.
Realizing the Full Potential of Your Cooling Tower Lime/Soda Ash Blowdown Softener Robert Stranberg, Covanta Energy and Terry McCoy, ChemTreat, Inc. 2006
Abstract: A concise and practical review of the softening process chemistry, including a review of the many chemical additive options for different influents emphasizing simplified chemistry maintenance is discussed. Several useful mechanical maintenance recommendations and chemical application modifications for often problematic operations will be provided based on long term zero discharge experiences. A "bonus" value proposition, the diversion of various plant waste streams other than tower Blowdown to the softener for processing to characteristics suitable for tower makeup and other plant uses, is described. Lime/soda ash softener function, enhancement of the quality of the tower circulating water is included.
Advances in Cooling System Treatment, Monitoring and Control Daniel M. Cicero, Nalco Company 2006
Abstract: Every cooling system operates under stress. As stress varies, the potential for scale corrosion and fouling changes. The ability to monitor the changing potential for these operational problems, detect upsets and take appropriate corrective action becomes increasingly important as systems are pushed harder to reduce total cost of operation. Over the pas two years, new methods of managing open industrial cooling water systems based on the actual stresses placed upon them have been developed in and evaluated in the field. This paper will discuss three applications where variation in system stress presented potential for scale, corrosion, and microbial fouling. Operational data will be presented explaining how these stresses were managed using a comprehensive treatment, monitoring and control strategy.
Optimizing Industrial Cooling Water System Performance with Proper Monitoring and Control Jean M. Gucciardi, Gucciardi Consulting, Inc. 2006
Abstract: Proper monitoring and control are the keys to cooling water system optimization. Technological developments in monitoring equipment and data acquisition systems have increased the options and reduced the cost of modernization to maximize cooling water system reliability in industrial systems. The benefits of proper control are measurable and translate to improved system efficiency and reliability. This paper will discuss the use of on-line instrumentation, water quality analyses and data management methods to document the historical operation, identify problems, troubleshoot and optimize the cooling system operation.
Development of an Online Multicomponent Water Treatment Analyzer John Richardson, Richard H. Tribble, Michael G. Trulear and Rich Geisler, ChemTreat, Inc. 2006
Abstract: A new online analysis platform for water treatment systems is discussed. The new platform has the ability to measure multiple system analytes, including water treatment active components such as anionic polymers. The impact of measuring key actives in cooling water treatment is demonstrated through improved system performance and control. Several laboratory studies and case histories are presented which demonstrate the capabilities of this new platform.
Effective Chemical free Microbiological Control for Industrial Cooling Water Systems Joanne Kuchinski, Linda Rusznak and Edward S. Beardwood Asland Specialty Chemical 2005
Abstract: Effective microbiological control is a critical component to optimizing efficiencies in industrial cooling water systems and oftentimes the most difficult to achieve and maintain. Due to a wide range of reasons involving environmental discharge issues, worker safety concerns, storage, troublesome feed equipment and impact on system metallurgy, the selection and/or application of micro biocides is becoming typical. A novel non chemical means of maintaining total system microbiological control has been successfully developed and effectively applied to industrial cooling water systems. The process involves the unique and practical application of ultrasound and provides both planktonic and sessile biological control. This paper describes the treatment process as well as the advantages and benefits achieved by maintaining system cleanliness.
A Novel Polymer for Effective Cooling Water Scale Control in Stressed Conditions Abdulmohsen Almajnouni - Aramco Services Company
Arif Jaffer - Baker Petrolite Corporation
Abstract: Synthetic polymers are used to control scale in a cooling water systems. A protocol consisting of laboratory and pilot cooling tower techniques along with field trial were used to evaluate the effectiveness of several established water polymers for the prevention of scale in stressed conditions. These technologies demonstrated that a novel polymer exhibits superior performance in stressed conditions environment.
Real-Time Biological Monitoring Davenport, Biotrace, Inc. 2003
Abstract: Control of Microbiological contamination in cooling towers requires an efficient means of measuring the contamination. ATP-based testing methods offer immediate results and measure the total microbial population, both aerobic and anaerobic, in one step. Methods for spot-checking towers, measuring biocide efficacy, detecting biofilms, and monitoring biofilm clean-up are described. Differential effects of oxidizing and non-oxidizing biocides on ATP response curves are demonstrated in specific examples.
Experience With On-Line Monitoring of Biofilms in Plant Applications George Licina, Structural Integrity Associates 2003
Abstract: Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC) of piping and heat exchanger materials in cooling waters has caused expensive unplanned outages, the need for local repairs and, in some cases, complete system replacement. The control of biofilm on surfaces is the most effective tool for mitigating MIC, as well as for maintaining heat transfer in heat exchangers. Optimized treatments require accurate, on-line monitoring of biofilm activity. Plant experience with an electrochemical biofilm sensor with integrated data acquisition and data analysis capabilities for monitoring biofilm activity on metallic surfaces and the use of that tool for optimizing biocide additions is described.
A Non-Chemical Water Treatment Device John Lane, Clearwater Systems; Gerald Kutner, Engelhard 2000
Abstract: A non-chemical water treatment device for treating the open-loop side of recirculating cooling tower water has been researched and developed for 4 years in university research centers and private laboratories. This paper reports performance data and describes mechanisms for the following functions: 1) the control of microbial populations to very low levels, independent of species or mutation, 2) the breakdown and removal of bio-film and scale encrustation, 3) the prevention of heat-exchanger fouling, 4) corrosion prevention on both local and uniform attack and 5) operation of cooling towers at very high cycles of concentration for water savings.
Halogen Stable Alkaline Cooling Program Dave Ritz and Gary Geiger
BetzDearborn Inc.
Abstract: This paper discusses the development and application of a new alkaline cooling water treatment program that is completely halogen stable. Conventional alkaline treatments utilize phosphonate for calcium carbonate scale control and azole (tolyltriazole) for copper corrosion inhibition. Both of these materials are known to degrade in the presence of chlorine or bromine biocides, and with their degradation a loss scale and/or corrosion control can occur. The new program utilizes a new chemistry that is completely halogen stable, and provides performance far superior to that obtained with the industry standard phosphonate and azole (tolyltriazole). The halogen stable technology represents the first major advancement in cooling water technology in over 30 years. Along with laboratory data, two field case studies will be presented.
Actives Based Monitoring and Control for Improved Cooling System Management and Performance Michael G. Trulear & John
Richardson, ChemTreat, Inc.
Abstract: Several new approaches for improving performance and productivity in the treatment of plant cooling water systems are discussed. The approaches are based on direct measurement of treatment program actives including polymer, phosphate, and phosphonate. Laboratory and field case histories are presented.
Tweaking-The Art and Science of Successful Cooling Water Treatment M.A."Andy"Ward, Thomas M. Larogne, Thomas M. Laronge, Inc. 1999
Abstract: Applied cooling water chemical treatments are often accepted as the end-of-all and the cure-for-all system problems. In fact, environmentally accepted and safe-to-management cooling water treatments tend to not perform up to expectations without continuing tweaking. Furthermore, that which is tweaked must fit the cooling water chemistry, the system's needs and often the system's discharge needs. This manuscript specifically provides insight as to how to adjust for success those multiplicities of variables, which affect evaporative cooling water systems. Tweaking, acting for success, includes balancing the interactions among pH's, flow, temperatures, deposit biofouling, scales, chemistry, operation, etc.
Making the Best Choices in Water Treatment Additives Roy Manley, BetzDearborn, Inc. 1998
Abstract: Advances in research, coupled with the demands of increasingly stringent environmental and safety rules, promote the development of improved chemical products. However, advances are often met with skepticism regarding a product's effectiveness, and claims of improved safety and environmental characteristics. Improved products often have to overcome a certain resistance, even f there are significant technical and environmental advantages. In spite of discussions on regulatory rollbacks, existing laws continue to influence the selection and use of many water treatment products. The effectiveness of a product may be equal to or even less important than acceptability under environmental and safety regulations. Ideally, products should be selected on the basis of many aspects and by consensus of company decision-makers to assure optimum choices. Unfortunately, users of water treatment products may choose less than optimum products, and with inappropriate reasons, based on perceived faults or advantages. How then can chemical products be selected, and what are the "right" reasons? A method for evaluating products is offered, in which new and existing compounds can be more consistently evaluated.
Maximizing Cooling Tower Cycles of Concentration Robert J. Cunningham, Chemisis Inc. 1995
Abstract: Cooling tower operators are currently confronted with a variety of contemporary chemical treatment and chemical/physical control processes as vendors of chemicals and equipment attempt to fill the vacuum created by the regulatory restriction of chromate based programs from our industrial arsenal. A number of apparently conflicting claims currently exist regarding the cycles of concentration that can be effectively maintained in open recirculating cooling water systems using various alternative control/treatment schemes with and without pretreatment. Users have suffered poor results by following vendor recommendations. In this paper the author discusses many of the common control/treatment schemes and provides both a theoretical basis for each program and practical guidelines on their performance and imitations.
Development of High Cycle Cooling Water Treatment Program Binu S. Khambatta, Daniel A. Meier & Michael A. Kamrath, Nalco Chemical Company 1994
Abstract: Environmental restrictions and the need for water conservation have led to the development of a new, high cycle cooling water treatment program. Bench top and process simulation test results will be discussed and related to field data.
Monitoring Biological Control in Cooling Systems Gary G. Engstrom & Jack C. Tully, Grace Dearborn 1994
Abstract: Effective microbiological control can be achieved by monitoring microbial levels as well as actual microbiocide treatment levels. The keys to measuring the effectiveness of any biocide program are the ability to quickly and accurately measure the microbiological activity in the cooling system. Measuring the actual biocide level in the system over time can also enhance the control of the system. This provides important information regarding the fate of the material in the system as well as the suitability of the biocide feed protocol selected. This paper will illustrate how a simple, rapid bioassay and an on-line chemical analyzer can be used to control the effectiveness of biocides in open recirculating cooling systems permitting the optimization of the biocide program to achieve the most cost effective control.
A Mechanistic Study of Corrosion Inhibition by Phosphonates B.J. Hepburn & P.J. Sullivan, FMC Corporation 1994
Abstract: Modern all-organic corrosion control programs for cooling water treatment are generally based on phosphonate chemistry. Recent studies have highlighted the advantages of hydroxy phosphono acetic acid (HPA) based formulations compared to those of other phosphonates. Particular interests are the range of applicability, improved corrosion control and the forgiving nature of the programs in use. Further mechanistic investigation has revealed the mode of action of HPA as a true corrosion inhibitor in a range of water chemistries and application conditions.
Alkaline Phosphate - A New Direction for Phosphate Cooling Water Treatment (TP-92-12) Christine M. Stuart & Phil Eastin, Nalco Chemical Company 1992
Abstract: Stringent environmental restrictions on chromate, and now on zinc, are forcing many plants to investigate alternative cooling water treatment technologies. A newly developed alkaline phosphate program operates in the same pH region as current alkaline zinc technologies. The alkaline phosphate program has broad calcium (80-1200 ppm as CaaCO3) and "M" alkalinity (100-350 ppm as CaCO3) application ranges. The new program provides excellent mild steel and yellow metal corrosion protection while maintaining clean heat transfer surfaces. Results from laboratory application testing and field performance evaluations will be presented.
Laboratory Development of Novel Multifunctional Polymers for Cooling Water Use (TP-91-09) Ingrid Brase & Joseph Pasapane, National Starch and Chemical Co., & James H. Belcher, Alco Chemical Company 1991
Abstract: Over the past several years, polymer development has focused on high performance multi-functional polymers. This paper will focus on research efforts, which have led to a novel new product. This sulphonated copolymer is useful over a broad range of operating conditions; providing iron oxide solubility and dispersion, calcium sequestration, calcium phosphate inhibitor and silt dispersion.
Polymer/HED Blends for Calcium Carbonate Deposit Control (TP-89-06) Alan Yeoman & Patrick Sullivan, Ciba-Geigy Corporation 1989
Abstract: The calcium carbonate deposit control performance of polymer/HEDP blends was compared in laboratory process simulation. Two primary characteristics were studied: threshold inhibition, where calcium and carbonate were maintained as soluble species in solution, and deposit control measured as resistance to heat transfer (fouling factor) in an "out-of-balance" condition where complete threshold inhibitor was not achieved. The recirculating water contained 500 ppm each of calcium hardness and total alkalinity (both as calcium carbonate) at either 105 or 130 degrees Fahrenheit. A homo-polymer of maleic acid was superior to either of two homo-polymer of acrylic acid as a co-additive with HEDP.
Performance of Molybdates as an Alternative to Chromates (TP-89-10) Charles W. Smith, Ph.D., Mitco Water Laboratories, Inc. 1989
Abstract: As the EPA deadline banning the use of chromates in comfort cooling towers (CCT's) approaches, water treatment vendors such as ourselves are seeking alternative methods to effectively threat CCT's. Molybdates are one such alternative. This paper will detail laboratory and field results that have been obtained using various chromates and molybdates formulations.
Alkaline All-Organic Cooling Water Treatment (Field & Laboratory Development) (TP-87-07) D.A. Little, J.E. Waller & Chris Soule, Dearborn Division 1987
Abstract: This paper describes recent experiences with newer all-organic alkaline treatment programs. The information presented will include both pilot scale and field generated corrosion and scale control performance data under a variety of operating conditions. Analytical information which assist in defining performance and explaining results will also be presented in order to enhance the reader's understanding of these programs.
A Molybdate Update Effective, Economical Programs (TP-87-10) Philip R. Engelhardt, Keith M. Johnson & Barry A. Metz, Wright Chemical Corporation 1987
Abstract: Reviews the improvements made in treatment programs using molybdate as the basis for inhibition. Additions of organic additives such as Diols have made these programs equal in effectiveness to the classic chromate programs without sacrificing cost. The paper includes a discussion on development of the molybdate-diol organic program and includes case history examples of application of these programs.
Diol Technology: A Unique Non-Heavy Metal Treatment Approach (TP-86-13) Byrnes Kuehnle, WrightChemical Company & Mike King, Ciba-Geigy Corporation 1986
Abstract: This new treatment approach provides results comparable to traditional chromate programs over a wide variety of water qualities and system conditions. This paper presents the results of this treatment approach applied at Ciba-Geigy's St. Gabriel, Louisiana Plant. Corrosion rates at the plant have been less than 0.4 mpy on carbon steel coupons, while eliminating the fouling previously experienced due to inorganic loading. The program takes advantage of the synergistic protection provided to carbon steel by diol technology without requiring the use of organic inhibitors.
A Chrome/Zinc-Based Cooling Water Treatment for Systems Operating Under Reducing Conditions (TP-86-19) Michael G. Fitzpatrick & Ronny C. Jackson, ChemTreat, Inc. 1986
Abstract: Where the use of hexavalent chrome is permissible, chrome-zinc based cooling water programs are perhaps the most cost-effective means of treatment. Chromate and zinc however, offer only limited protection against the pitting type corrosion associated with iron deposition on cooling system surfaces. Under reducing conditions the effectiveness of chrome-zinc based programs for corrosion control is severely limited. Reducing conditions generally require the implementation of a non-chrome contingency program. In this paper a chromate/zinc-phosphonate organic program is evaluated as a means of controlling general etch and pitting type corrosion in systems frequently operated under reducing conditions where iron deposition has been a problem. Our evaluation of this novel approach was based on laboratory data and on data generated in operating systems where reducing contaminants and iron deposition have limited the effectiveness of conventional chrome-zinc programs.
Cooling Water Treatment Transition Zinc-Chromate to All Organic (TP-85-03) James G. Kanuth, Dupont Co.& Kent Binks, Drew Chemical Corp. 1985
Abstract: Describes the transition made at a major southwestern chemical plant from zinc-chromate to an all-organic treatment program. Information is provided on the comprehensive program that was instituted to insure positive results. A major portion of that program involved the use of a computerized fouling monitor. Results of the all-organic program, including cost differentials, are included.
New Approaches to Monitoring The Performance And Control of Cooling Water Programs (TP-85-12) D.C. Helton, D.A. Johnson& G.W. Hanks, Nalco Chemical Co. 1985
Abstract: A major factor in the success of failure of any cooling water treatment program is the control and monitoring strategy used. New monitoring techniques using computer technology have been developed which allow monitoring both the control of cooling tower systems and the performance of the treatment package. These techniques allow the development of cause and effect relationships that facilitate optimization of the treatment program. Portable remote monitoring systems have been developed and their use is discussed.
A Cooling Tower Pilot Plant for Evaluating Non-Chromate Water x Treatment Programs (TP-84-14) Carol A. Jones, Dow Chemical Corporation 1984
Abstract: A highly instrumentated cooling tower pilot plant was designed and constructed at the Dow Chemical Texas Division plant, Freeport, Texas, for the purpose of developing operating guidelines for fuse of various commercially available non-chromate cooling water treatment programs. The paper will focus on the pilot plant as an evaluation tool. A detailed description of both the design and operation will be given. Instrumentation and techniques, which were used to monitor important parameters, will be emphasized. As an illustration, the results from a molybdate based treatment program will be reviewed.
A Breakdown in Cooling Tower Water Technology Dianodic II (TP-229A) R.H. Gailey, R.C. May & G.W. Delaney, Betz Laboratories, Inc. 1981
Abstract: Laboratory and field data show the ability of this treatment to with stand system upsets such as acid spills and loss of dispersant feed.
Effective Phosphate/Phosphonate Treatments Replace Chromate-Based Programs (TP-117A) William L. Harpel & John M. Donohue, Betz Laboratories, Inc. 1973
New Advances in Organic Cooling Water Programs (TP-100A) Ernest Q. Petrey, Drew Chemical Corporation 1972
New, Non-Chromate Synthetic-Organic Corrosion Inhibitor for Cooling Water Systems (TP-58A) C.M. Hwa, Dearborn Chemical Division 1968

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