CTI Bibliography of Technical Papers - Drift

Revised 2017

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Drift
Order NumberTitleAuthorDate
New Laboratory of the Cooling Tower Research in the Czech Republic Pavol Vitkovic, Czech Technical University in Prague 2017
Abstract: This year we are starting to build the new laboratory for the cooling tower research. Its location is in the central Europe near the capital city of Czech Republic Prague. The new laboratory consists of hall laboratory and exterior experimental facilities. In the new laboratory is the experimental test cell for drift eliminator testing. This facility can be used for fill measurement also. Experimental cells for dry and wet cooling towers are placed on the exterior of the new laboratory.
Alternate Chemical Analysis for Drift Losses Measurements Michel Monjoie, Monjoie Cooling and Gene Culver, McHale & Associates, Inc. 2012
Abstract: Atomic absorption analysis, recommended by CTI drift code (ATC-140) is one of the most accurate chemical analysis for drift losses measurement. Unfortunately, the results are never available immediately. It may introduce test uncertainty or even test miss-evaluation in case of, as example, a filter contamination, without possibility to run the test again. An alternate method using the measurement of the conductivity of the filter washing water is easy to perform on site, gives immediate results allowing observing abnormal measurement. The paper describes the testing procedures and gives the limit of use to get accurate measurement. For the drift eliminator certification organized by EUROVENT in the Hamon lab during 2009 and 2010, both methods were used for evaluation of results. Some test on site has also used both methods. The paper will compare both methods in lab and on site.
Drift Measurement Using Conductivity Methodology: Advantage and Limitation Vincent Ganzitti, Hamon 2012
Abstract: This paper intends to present the drift measurement using the conductivity methodology. It will show its advantages and its limitations.
Best Practices for Minimizing Drift Loss in a Cooling Tower William C. Miller, Brentwood Industries, Inc. 2012
Abstract: There are many factors associated with the drift loss potential of a cooling tower. With the greater restrictions on drift emissions that are now required in many locales, it is important to know all of these factors to make sure that the drift loss of a tower is minimized. This paper will explore the various factors involved for both counterflow and crossflow cooling towers.
New Methods For Drift Eliminators Performance Evaluation Jan Cizek and Ludmila Novakova, CTU In Prague 2011
Abstract: The subject of the paper is aimed for methodology for the evaluation of cooling tower drift eliminator performance. Two independent methods for the evaluation of eliminator performance were used. The former method is based on the numerical determination of particle trajectories in the area of drift eliminators. The latter approach applied the method commercially known as IPI (Interferometric Particle Imaging). This method seems to be the most suitable for such purposes. It is a non-invasive method based on optical interference beam passed through the transparent particles and the beam reflected by such particles. The performance of drift eliminators was evaluated by comparison of the droplet size distribution below and over them.
Meteorological Considerations in the Design of Plume Abated Cooling Towers Ken Hennon and David Wheeler, CleanAir Engineering 2009
Abstract: Cooling towers are often located in areas where a visible plume is objectionable. In such situations, a plume abated cooling tower is frequently specified to alleviate the perceived problem. The paper discusses the use of fogging frequency analysis to examine alternative designs of plume abatement systems and the selection of the psychometric design point that defines the envelope of conditions in which a visible plume or fog is produced. This paper also examines the limits of plume abatement technology to reduce the frequency of visible plumes. The type of meteorological information to be used as design basis for plume abated cooling towers is specified.
A Digital Method for Analyzing Droplets on Sensitive Paper Dudley Benton, McHale & Associates 2009
Abstract: Sensitive paper has long been used to detect droplet impingement in several processes including drieft measurement. Identifying, counting, and measure the individual droplets has been a tedious, labor-intensive task involving microscopic examination and statistical extrapolation, seeing as counting all the droplets has previously been impractical. Digital techniques now in common use however, can reduce this previously labor-intensive task to a rather simple one of graphical data screening. Furthermore, all the droplets are included in the statistical sampling, reducing the uncertainty of the results. The conventional (manual/optical) and digital methods are compared for actual samples as well as the effort and equipment involved.
A Review of Drift Eliminator Performance William C. Miller, Timothy E. Krell, Brentwood Industries, Inc 2006
Abstract: Drift eliminators and the technology behind them continue to evolve as drift specifications grow more stringent and tower operators strive for the best performing products available to the marketplace. As such, the choice of best product for th application becomes more critical. One important aspect of drift performance is the pressure loss characteristic of a drift eliminator and the difference between dry and wet measurements. The differences between various eliminator configurations highlight the benefits of new technology and theory applied to drift eliminators to achieve the best performance and lower pressure drop. This yields continued improvements for the tower operator.
An Economic Solution to Cooling Tower Drift G.C. Pederson and Frank Power Kimre, Inc. 2005
Abstract: General introduction to cooling tower drift, including its effects on structural steel (corrosion) and lost costs of water and chemicals. Various solutions including the high velocity designs and the Kimre drift eliminator are analyzed for cost effectiveness.
Cooling Tower Emissions Quantification Using The Cooling Technology Institute Test Code ATC-140 Ken Hennon and David Wheeler, Power Generation Technologies 2003
Abstract: Evaporative cooling towers serve the heat rejection needs of a wide variety of industries. In a typical cooling loop, water is pumped through a steam condenser, chiller, or heat exchanger to a cooling tower, which rejects the heat to the atmosphere. In the majority of cooling towers, a fan on the top of the tower is used to induce an air stream against the falling water droplets. As the air comes in contact with the water, a small fraction of the water droplets are entrained in the exiting airstream. Baffles called drift eliminators are placed between the nozzles and the fan to minimize (through inertial impaction) the amount of entrained water droplets that are discharged into the atmosphere. The escaping droplets are called drift. An important distinction between drift and the normally visible condensing plume is that the drift contains the same chemicals and solids present in the circulating water, whereas the condensation is pure water vapor. Cooling tower emission rates are usually presented as a Drift Fraction which is defined as the ration of the water exiting the tower as drift divided by the circulating water flow rate. This paper discusses drift testing methods, the current state-of-the-art drift emission guarantees, and tower specifics that contribute to increased drift emissions.
A Non-Metallic Air Cooled Heat Exchanger for Cooling Tower Plume Reduction David M. Suptic, The Marley Cooling Tower Company 1999
Abstract: Siting of industrial manufacturing complexes and power plants close to municipalities and highways often presents numerous obstacles related to cooling tower plume formation. Cooling tower plume formation can be a safety or aesthetic concern. Traditional methods to eliminate the plume employ a hybrid technology of air-cooled steel coils in tandem with the evaporative section of the cooling tower. While effective, these systems have been costly. New non-metallic heat exchanger technologies allows for a lower cost alternative as well as fouling and clog resistance, lower weight and corrosion resistance. Such technology allows for greater plant siting flexibility.
Cooling Tower Plume Abatement at Chicago's O'Hare Airport J.D. (Doug) Randall, P.E., Marley Cooling Tower, Michael C. Long, P.E., Black & Veatch, Romesh K. Kansal, P.E., Dept. of Aviation, City of Chicago 1998
Abstract: A recently completed project at Chicago's O'Hare Airport makes an interesting case study in the application and design of plume abated cooling towers. Expansion of the airport had resulted in cooling towers being located between the FAA control tower and one of the taxiways. Visible plume from these towers was obstructing the vision of pilot on the taxiway, and blocking the line of sight between the control tower and the taxiway. The solution to this problem was to build a new plume abated cooling tower at the site. Design/plume abatement requirements, site restrictions, maintenance and operational flexibility were a few of the many issues involved in the planning and implementation of this project.
The Relationship Between SP and HGBIK Drift Measurement Results - New Data Creates a Need for a Second Look Jack R. Missimer, Ph.D., P.E. David E. Wheeler, P.E., Kenneth W. Hennon, Power Generation Technologies 1998
Abstract: The CTI drift measurement code ATC-140 specifies that isokinetic measurements be employed for cooling tower drift emissions measurements. The sensitive paper techniques, an alternative method also referenced by the test code, provide additional information not supplied by the Isokinetic test procedure. There have been few occasions; over the years when both the Sensitive paper and HGBIK drift measurement techniques have been employed at the same location. This has allowed only periodic comparisons of the results of the two techniques. Both methods were employed at the same location during a recent test program. The results create an opportunity to revisit some of the traditionally held views of the expected relationships between the results of the two techniques. This paper compares the data supplied by each method as well as the drift rates measured by each. This paper also addresses issues relevant to the determination of the rate of the efflux from cooling towers of chemicals entrained in the drift.
Predictions of the Plume From a Cooling Tower Kazutaka Takata, Kiyoshi Nasu, Hiroyuki Yoshikawa, Shinko Pantec Co., Ltd. 1996
Abstract: A visible plume from a cooling tower is sometimes considered to be a nuisance such as an icing and/or a barrier for visibility and sunshine. Prediction of the behaviors of a visible plume is expected to be accomplished. In this work, the plume has been predicted using computational fluid dynamics. Computational results are capable of reproducing the main feature of the plume. The length, width and volume of a plume in various conditions agree well with the measured ones. Although the present simulation could not represent the small behaviors of turbulent flow, this method is considered to become a useful tool to normalize the scale of plume.
Drift Testing - Scale Up From Test Cell To Field Acceptance Test David Brill, Black & Veatch Joe H. Lander, Florida Power Corp. 1994
Abstract: In 1989 Florida Power Corporation (FPC) agreed to install helper-cooling towers at their Crystal River Generating Station to cool circulating water discharged to the Golf of Mexico. As a result of agreements with the environmental agencies a maximum allowable helper cooling tower drift rate of 0.002 percent was required, including compliance field-testing. An R&D drift-testing program was conducted in 1990 in a cooling tower test cell to confirm that the drift rate limit would be achievable when field-tested using EPA Method 5. The helper towers are now in commercial operation and recent field drift testing has validated the results of the R&D program.
Drift Eliminators and Fan System Performance Dr. Bryan R. Becker, P.E., Assoc. Professor of Mechanical Engr., Univ. of Missouri, Larry F. Burdick, P.E. Project Engineer, The Marley Cooling Tower 1994
Abstract: To achieve peak cooling tower operating efficiency, it is desirable that losses in fan system performance due to the drift eliminators be minimized. Therefore, an experimental program was developed and executed to evaluate the effect of drift eliminator design on cooling tower fan system performance. Flow visualization studies were used to gain insight into the flow patterns within the cooling tower plenum. A fully instrumented fan test was used to investigate the effects upon fan system performance resulting from two different styles of drift eliminators.
Plume Abatement and Water Conservation With The Wet/Dry Cooling Tower (TP-93-01) Paul A. Lindahl, & Randall W. Jameson, The Marley Cooling Tower Company 1993
Abstract: A review is presented of alternative wet/dry tower configurations for plume abatement and water conservation. The design basis of each general type is discussed both in terms of psychrometrics and the physical configuration. Considerations for specifiers of wet/dry towers for plume abatement and water conservation are presented, including the design point basis, selection of the design point, methods of testing to verify the guarantee and other physical design factors.
Simultaneous Comparison of the CTI HBIK and the EPA Method 13A Isokinetic Drift Test Procedures Michael R. Whittemore, Brentwood Industries, Inc., & Thomas E. Weast, Midwest Research Institute 1993
Abstract: Cooling tower drift is defined as the percent of circulating water flow that exits from the cooling tower fan stack in the form of fine water droplets and aerosols entrained in the exhaust air. For cooling tower drift tests, the CTI recommended heated Bead Isokinetic (HBIK) procedure is the most commonly used procedure and is close to being accepted as a code by CTI, whereas regulators prefer the EPA Method 13A procedure. In theory both procedures (if properly operated, recovered and analyzed), should give the same results. This paper examines and compares the two-isokinetic methods and their proper operation, recovery and analysis so as to obtain accurate and repeatable results. The testing services of Midwest Research Institute (MRI) were retained by Brentwood Industries, Inc. to conduct a series of 18 drift tests by using both the CTI recommended HBIK drift test procedure and the EPA Method 13A drift test procedure. The tests were conducted simultaneously using both test procedures on two types of Brentwood drift eliminators at two water loadings and several air velocities at the Ceramic Cooling Tower Company's test facility located in Fort Worth, Texas. The drift from the test cell was determined by isokinetically sampling a representative fraction of the test cell airflow above the drift eliminators. Lithium was added to the test cell circulating water prior to starting the series of tests to serve as an analysis tracer. Inductively coupled argon plasma spectroscopy (ICP), an extremely sensitive detection technique, was then used to measure the concentration of lithium in the circulating water and in the collected drift samples. The total drift rates were calculated from the ratio of the concentration of the lithium in the sampling train to the concentration of the lithium in the circulating water. The CTI HBIK and the EPA 13A methods of isokinetic drift collection were found to yield nearly identical results in the series of tests.
Reduction of Cooling Tower PM10 Emissions Due to Drift Eliminator Modifications at a Chemical Refining Plant (TP-92-10) Thomas E. Weast, P.E. & Nicholas M. Stich, Midwest Research Institute, & Gordon Israelson, P.E., Westinghouse Electric Corporation 1992
Abstract: Separate isokinetic EPA Method 13A and heated cascade impactor tests were performed on three cooling towers before and after drift eliminator modifications. The modifications consisted of installation of Munters D-15 eliminators over the existing eliminators. The reduction of drift and corresponding mineral mass emissions was about 80%.
Comparison of Two Isokinetic Drift Measurement Methods (TP-90-12) Paul Lindahl & O.L. Kinney, The Marley Cooling Tower Co. 1990
Abstract: A recent major cooling tower installation included a requirement for a very low drift rate guarantee and testing by the EPA stack gas sampling method 13A, modified on cooling tower application, and significant scatter in results have been reported. A study was commissioned with both Environmental Systems Corporation and Midwest Research Institute to conduct modified Method 13A, tests over a variety of eliminators. The tests were conducted under carefully controlled laboratory conditions in a large counterflow test cell. The results will be presented and compared to results from the same test cell using a 4th generation hot bead/filter pack isokinetic sampling systems.
An Economical Solution to Cooling Tower Drift (T-87-08) George C. Pedersen, P.E., Kimre, Inc., V. Keith Lamkin, P.E., Engineered Processes, Inc., & Mike Seich, Dow Chemical Co. 1987
Abstract: General introduction to cooling tower drift, including its effects on structural steel (corrosion) and lost costs of water and chemicals. Various solutions including the high velocity designs and the Kimre drift eliminator are analyzed for cost effectiveness. Case histories are provided from Dow Chemical that outlines results of Kimre units in operation for 1½ -2 years.
Comprehensive Drift Measurements on a Circular Mechanical Draft Cooling Tower (TP-86-01) Karl Wilber, Environmental Systems Corp., & Ken Vercauteren, Arizona Public Serv. 1986
Abstract: Comprehensive drift measurements were made on multiple cells of a circular crossflow mechanical draft-cooling tower. The data include both Isokinetic mineral mass flux determinations and liquid droplet flux and sizing determinations using a sensitive paper methodology. Cell to cell variations are presented along with the results of repeatability measurements. Additionally updraft air velocity and waterflow measurement results are provided. The importance of specific ambient mineral concentration measurements vis-à-vis cooling tower exit plane concentrations is discussed in concert with data on five tracer elements. Data from this tower are presented and compared with those of other towers that were also subjects of comprehensive drift measurements programs.
Comparison of Methods For Measurement of Cooling Tower Drift (T-85-06) M.W. Golay, W.J. Glantschnig & F.T. Best, Dept. of Nuclear Engr., Massachusetts Institute of Technology 1985
Abstract: A comparison of methods to measure cooling tower drift was performed at MIT, with participants from Belgium, the U.S. and the Federal Republic of Germany. The test environments differed according to droplet mass flux, droplet size distribution and gas speed. Cases tested included both mechanical and natural draft cooling tower environments. Among the instruments tested are the pulsed laser light scattering system (PILLS), sensitive paper and other sensitive surface droplet impaction systems, isokinetic drift mass flux measurement systems and photographic systems. The instruments tested varied widely in their capabilities, with droplet sizing instruments being more effective in low load, small droplet size spectrum situations, and isokinetic mass and chemical assay techniques being most accurate in high load, large droplet distribution cases.
Cooling Tower Drift Study - Drift Measurement and Analysis of the Measuring Technique (T-232A) Shin H. Park, Union Carbide 1981
Abstract: Cooling towers at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant have been studied for many years. The drift rate and spectrum of droplets have been measured with all existing techniques. Results show that the sensitive paper technique is still the most reliable method.
Cooling Tower Drift Studies at the Paducah, Kentucky Gaseous Diffusion Plant (T-213A) Fred G. Taylor & Patricia D. Parr, Oak Ridge National Lab., Steven R. Hanna, AirResources Lab 1979
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Drift - Modeling and Monitoring Comparisons (T-175A) Norbert C.J. Chen, Oak Ridge National Lab., Steven R. Hanna, Air Resources Laboratory 1977
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The Generation of Visible Plumes by Wet/Dry Cooling Towers (T-123A) Robert J. Biese, Ms.M.D.,P.E., Gilbert Associates, Inc. 1974
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On the Question of Airborne Transmission of Pathogenic Organisms in Cooling Tower Drift (T-124A) B.G. Lewis, Argonne National Laboratory 1974
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Cooling Tower Drift Its Measurement, Control and Environmental Effects (TP-107A) G.K. Wistrom & J.C. Ovard, Ecodyne Cooling Products Co. 1973
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Atmospheric Effects of Water Cooling Facilities (TP-107B) Eric Aynsley, Particle Data Laboratories, Ltd. & James E. Carson, Argonne National Laboratory 1973
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Analytical Determination of Cooling Tower Drift Eliminators Efficiencies (TP108A) R.E. Grimble, Westinghouse Research & Development Labs, & A. Roffman, Westinghouse Environmental Systems Dept. 1973
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Predictions of Drift Deposition From Salt Water Cooling Towers (TP-109A) A. Roffman, Westinghouse Environmental Systems Dept., R.E. Grimble, Westinghouse Research & Development Labs 1973
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Cooling Tower Plumes - Defined and Traced by Means of Computer Simulation Models (TP-115A) W.G. England, L.H. Teuscher & J.R. Taft, Systems, Science & Software 1973
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Control of Cooling Tower Mist (TP-87A) R.H. Maurer, Celanese Chemical Company 1970
Abstract: Regulation I of the Texas Air Control Board stipulates that mist emitted from cooling towers shall not cause a highway visibility hazard. At the time this regulation became effective we did not have a solution to our intermittent visibility problem, although this problem had been under study for about two years. We filed an application to obtain a variance from the board until we could find a satisfactory solution and put it into effect. The variance was granted. The board proved to be very helpful in that they suggested we contact Atlantic-Richfield, who had solved a problem similar to ours. This paper reveals our findings.
A Review of CTI Work on the Measurement of Cooling Tower Drift Loss (TP-68A) John C. Campbell 1969
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