CTI Bibliography of Technical Papers - Driveshafts

Revised 2013

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Order NumberTitleAuthorDate
Accurately Determining Drive Shaft Natural Frequencies Duane Byerly, Rexnord Corporation 2013
Abstract: Mechanical drive equipment must be selected correctly and operate smoothly with no vibration. Drive shafts must be designed and manufactured with precision to prevent operation near a natural frequency. We have gotten more sophisticated in determining and controlling the natural frequency of drive shafts. As a user, you must be cautious of the supplier you choose for your drive system critical components. Not all manufacturers have a sufficient level of understanding; therefore, any supplier should provide you with the data to support the natural frequency values they publish.
Natural Frequency Characteristics of Drive Shafts Robert Poling, Amarillo Gear Company 2005
Abstract: For rotating machinery utilizing drive shafts, it is important to operate at a speed sufficiently lower than the drive shaft's natural frequency to prevent destructive vibration. In this paper, the theory of determining the shaft's natural frequency is presented as well as methods for empirically testing a shaft's natural frequency. Vibrations levels in the region of the natural frequency are empirically determined for composite drive shafts and multiple test methods for determining the natural frequency are described and compared. The effect of the end conditions is discussed and an appropriate end condition is presented, and finally, the effect on natural frequency when a torque is applied to the composite shaft if presented.
Mechanical Damage Caused by EMF Generated from Fast Bus Reclosure James T. Heard, Addax, Inc. 1997
Abstract: Energy conservation considerations have led to the increasing use of two speed motors and variable frequency drives for mechanical draft cooling towers. While this practice has resulted in improved efficiency, its proper application has several hidden pitfalls that must be considered when specifying the motor control and mechanical components in the system. The potential damage tooth electric motors and the connected equipment that is caused by fast switching or fast bus reclosure can be quite extensive. This paper discusses the details of motor reaction to fast switching, illustrates damage caused to mechanical components and recommends prevention.
Composite Couplings for Cooling Towers (TP-91-11) Dennis Van Laarhoven, Consultant 1991
Abstract: Many cooling tower designs now require special consideration to reduce their impact on the environment and facilitate site permitting. Unique designs will be discussed including: low noise applications; injectional scrubbed flue gas into natural draft cooling towers; drift requirements as low as .0001%; new EPA testing methods, environmentally critical thermal performance; removal, redesign and replacement of asbestos products with alternate materials; water conservation; zero discharge towers and elimination of plume through the use of a wet/dry cooling tower.
Design and Application of Composite Cooling Tower Couplings (TP-89-08) Brian S. Spencer, Addax, Inc. 1989
Abstract: This paper discusses the design and application of composite cooling tower couplings. Couplings are now available in both composite spacers and composite flexible elements. The composite spacers have proven their effectiveness through two years of service. The flexible coupling has been recently introduced after completing laboratory testing. The one-piece composite flexible element provides up to 5 degrees misalignment at a very low misalignment moment. The element also offers corrosion resistance, lightweight and a virtual infinite fatigue life.
Composite Driveshafts in Cooling Towers (TP-88-06) Dr. K.R. Berg, ASEA Composites, Inc. 1988
Abstract: The use of fiber-reinforced epoxy driveshafts dates back to 1969. However, the high price of carbon fiber at that time precluded industrial applications. Today, after 18 years of intense development and production, the price of carbon fiber permits competitive pricing for driveshafts of composite materials. The paper presents the whys and wherefores of composite materials applied to cooling tower driveshafts. Also presented is the status of composite driveshafts in other applications.
Thermal Expansion Problems With Long Single Piece Fan Drive Shafts (TP-85-20) C.W. Hendrickson, Rexnord Mechanical Power Division, D.A. Fairbanks & G.R. Kleman, Southwestern Public Service 1985
Abstract: The use of larger and more efficient mechanically induced draft cooling tower fans has given rise to the use of long single piece fan gearbox input shafts. This type of shaft replaces the maintenance nuisance of intermediate shaft bearings with potential thermal expansion problems. This paper discusses some of these problems and their circumvention.
Flexible Coupling Driveshaft Systems For Cooling Towers (TP-98A) Fred K. Landon, Koppers Company, Inc. 1972

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