CTI Bibliography of Technical Papers - Dry Cooling

Revised 2016

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Dry Cooling
Order NumberTitleAuthorDate
Wind Effects On Air Cooled Condensers: Insights From The Wind-Tunnel Ryan Parker and Bruce R. White, University of California Davis 2016
Abstract: Air-Cooled Condensers (ACCs) offer a way to significantly reduce U.S. water consumption but are susceptible to adverse wind conditions. An ongoing interdisciplinary research project is investigating the effects of wind on the thermal performance of ACCs with a field study of an existing full-scale combined cycle power plant, wind-tunnel study, and a high fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. This presentation will focus on the insights provided by the wind tunnel study, and include limited comparisons with the other methods. Included in the modeling are the effect of some mitigation methods such as windscreens and solid walls.
Use Of Large Diameter Fans On Air Cooled Heat Exchangers Richard J DesJardins, DesJardins Consulting; Kevin Kitz, U.S. Geothermal, Inc. 2016
Abstract: A significant improvement in air cooled heat exchanger technology was implemented at U.S. Geothermal’s Neal Hot Springs power plant. Large induced draft cooling tower fans were used to reduce the total number of fans from 270 to 30. O&M and power savings total $1.6 million dollars present value. Use of VFD controlled direct drive motors yielded additional power savings of $3.1 million dollars present value. Higher capital first costs were offset by innovative structural designs that reduced overall installed costs. CFD was used to show that the large fan design virtually eliminates hot air recirculation compared to 5% to 35% recirculation rates of traditional small fan designs.
Numerical Study on Erosion at the Tube Entry Region of an Air Cooled Condenser Donghyouck Han, Dept of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University 2015
Abstract: A parametric study has been carried out to investigate the effect of steam velocity, particle diameter, particle amount, particle material, and steam velocity profile on heat exchanger tube erosion using CFD. The discrete phase model is used to analyze erosion behavior and each simulation condition is evaluated in terms of erosion rate. Several erosion mitigation methods are described based on CFD results.
Wind Barrier Effectiveness on Aircooled Condensers John S. Maulbetsch, Maulbetsch Consulting 2015
Abstract: This study develops general guidelines for the arraignment of wind screens and estimates of their effectiveness through a combined program including field testing of a full-scale utility ACC coupled with physical (wind tunnel) and computational (CFD) modeling of the field conditions. Continuous field measurements of ACC and plant performance, ambient conditions, and air velocity and temperature around and under the ACC are being made for a one-year period. The wind tunnel and CFD results will be calibrated and validated with the field data. The models will then be used to explore other situations in an attempt to provide general guidelines for wind screen design and arrangement.
Hybrid Cooling Towers – Water Savings Calculations and Measurements Jean-Pierre Libert, Evaptech, Inc. 2015
Abstract: In many areas of the globe water has become, along with energy, a critical natural resource. Because of that concern, a variety of hybrid cooling towers have been developed for power-plant usage. These hybrids provide the cooling performance of a wet-cooling tower but with less water usage. The particular amount of water savings that can be achieved varies with both the design of the hybrid cooling-tower and the ambient climate. There is no generally accepted method for estimating the expected water savings from a specific hybrid design at a specific site; nor is there a generally accepted method for verifying that the estimated water savings was realized. This paper proposes methods for both standardization of hybrid water-savings calculations and verification of water savings by field measurements.
Advanced Cooling Solutions for Water Conservation Jean-Pierre Libert, Evapco, Inc.; Jay Renew of Southern Research Institute 2014
Abstract: The eco wet-dry cooler, developed by EVAPCO, conserves water and energy used at power plants by using an innovative wet-dry fluid technology. The cooling tower works in wet-dry mode during the hot summer months and in dry mode other times of the year. In wet-dry mode, hot water is first cooled through dry coils and further cooled through additional tubes sprayed with treated water. In dry mode, the spray system is off, using no water and no water treatment chemicals. In addition, the eco wet-dry cooler has a limited visible water cloud, or condensate plume, in wet-dry mode and zero visible plume in dry mode. This technical paper presents data related to the thermal performance, water use and energy use of the pilot unit after several months of operation.
Air Cooled Steam Condenser Test Laboratory Mark Huber and Jean-Pierre Libert, Evapco, Inc 2013
Abstract: Power plants that incorporate Air Cooled Steam Condensers (ACC’s) offer significant water savings over power plants using traditional evaporative cooling technologies. State-of-the-art ACC’s feature single-row finned tubes installed in an A-frame steel structure. The steam from the turbine exhaust condenses as it is directly cooled by forced convection of the ambient air. Precise knowledge of the heat transfer and pressure drops both on the steam side and air side, are vital to allow the ACC supplier to properly rate the equipment and guarantee its performance. EVAPCO has designed, built and commissioned a unique wind tunnel to investigate ACC heat exchangers. To best serve our clients, this one of a kind laboratory installation incorporates a full size (up to 35ft tall) heat exchanger test section, required for many client applications. The process loop produces steam under vacuum in conditions typically utilized in power or other process plant applications. The ability to test the heat exchanger with steam under vacuum rather than hot water makes it unique as well, and allows EVAPCO to optimize the Air Cooled Condenser design with unprecedented precision; giving particular attention to phenomena such as freezing, air leakage, impingement, flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) and limiting the high parasitic power losses associated with Air Cooled Condensers. The EVAPCO Dry Cooling test laboratory can not only test first stage (concurrent flow, K or condenser cell) or second stage flow (counter-flow, dephlegmator or reflux cell), in a 100% direct cooling configuration, but can be adapted to also test hybrid/parallel condensing systems
Effects of Wind on Air-Cooled Condenser Performance John S. Maulbetsch, Maulbetsch Consulting and Michael N. DiFilippo - Consultant 2007
Abstract: Wind is an important factor affecting the performance of air-cooled condensers. The paper presents the results of field tests at five plants with ACC's to determine the mechanism and magnitude of the effects. The relative importance of recirculation and degradation of fan performance is discussed. Possible approaches to mitigate the wind effect are explored.
Evaporative Pre-coolers for Air Cooled Heat Exchangers Matt Smith, L.S. Enterprises; Rich Aull, Brentwood Industries; Robert Giammaruti, Hudson Products Corporation 2006
Abstract: Evaporative pre-cooling of air cooled heat exchangers provides the thermodynamic advantages of water cooling towers with the reduced maintenance requirements of air cooled heat exchangers. In areas where water conservation, cooling tower plume abatement, or water discharge permits are a problem, evaporative pre-cooling of the air going to the heat exchanger can be the solution. This paper discusses the advantages of pre-coolers and presents some basic design considerations.
Enhancement of Air Cooled Condenser Operation in Power Plants Ram Chandran, Holtec International 2006
Abstract: Use of Air Cooled Condensing system, to condense turbine exhaust steam from the steam cycle of combined cycle plants, coal fired plants and various other plants using steam to generate electricity, has gained acceptance. However, as electricity generation is privatized, building plants at low cost has been the priority rather than the performance. This paper discusses the impact of velocity consideration in the design of air cooled condensers. The velocity at design point and the change in velocity affect the steam duct design and the tube bundle design. As the ambient temperature varies, it affects and/or limits the range of turbine operation. This, in turn, can improve or adversely affect the plant electric power output. The velocity also has an effect on the condensate temperature. The reheat of the condensate requires energy which is redirected from generating capacity which is often ignored.
Pressure Recovery Effects in Air-Cooled Installations Henk van der Spek, Howden Cooling Fans 2005
Abstract: Pressure recovery is an effect that occurs in gas and liquid flows. It concerns the conversion from both the speed of the fluid into pressure and into the inverse direction under ideal conditions. In fact, it is the consequence of one of the most fundamental physical laws (i.e. the law of conservation of energy). Although an air-cooled heat exchanger, the velocity of the air varies many times, pressure recovery effects have been hardly recognized up to now. This report aims to discuss the effects on air-cooled heat exchangers and the further impact of it on the dimensioning of axial air flow fans for those air-cooled heat exchangers.
Why Every Air Cooled Steam Condenser Needs A Cooling Tower Dr. Luc DeBacker and William M. Wurtz, Hamon Dry Cooling 2003
Abstract: This technical paper will review the basic types of cooling systems utilized by utility power plants, and explain the reasons why it is advantageous to include a cooling tower in many dry cooling applications. A system where a cooling tower is used in conjunction with an air-cooled steam condenser is called a parallel condensing system. This type of system utilizes three traditional types of heat exchangers: a cooling tower, an air-cooled steam condenser and a surface condenser. An optimized parallel condensing system reduces both investment costs and operational costs while using a minimum amount of water.
The New Wet/Dry Cooling Tower Without Finned Tube Dry Section (NWD) Toshio Miura, Osamu Gotoh, Ishikawajima Plant Engr & Const Co., Ltd. 1998
Abstract: NWD uses the multi purpose fill, which is consisted of all wet and wet/dry lanes. During the summer season, NWD can be used as all wet cooling tower by using wet/dry lanes as wet sections, and during plume abatement (winter) season, NWD can be used as wet/dry cooling tower by using wet/dry lanes as dry sections which are acting similar to finned tube dry sections. The design criteria of NWD had been established by the experiment and a prototype NWD was installed to confirm the result of the experiment and no plume was visible at the fan stack exit.
Integrated Wet/Dry Cooling and Plume Abatement With The Binary Cooling Tower (TP-21A) William G. Sanderson & Richard G. Lancaster, Tower Systems, Inc. 1983
Abstract: State-of-the-art wet/dry plume abatement cooling towers are often considered, but seldom purchased primarily because of high overall costs. The BCT, with it unique operating flexibility, can be configured as a plume abatement-cooling tower with zero feasible plumes under all operating conditions. This paper reviews the wet/dry operations of the BCT.
The Supplemental Use of Dry Surface in a Cooling Tower System (TP-65A) J.R. Buss & P.L. Tremont, Monsanto Company 1969

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