CTI Bibliography of Technical Papers - Energy Evaluation

Revised 2017

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Energy Evaluation
Order NumberTitleAuthorDate
Energy Performance of Evaporative Recovery (ER) Using Cooling Tower & Coil Arrangements Moe Salem, Air2O Cooling LLC and Ayman Youssef, Saudi Aramco 2017
Abstract: This paper evaluates the energy savings potential of Evaporative Recovery (ER) using cooling tower and coil arrangement as fresh air pre-cooling in hot and humid climatic conditions. Energy saving chart was generated for various climatic conditions across the USA to predict the energy performance of ER using cooling tower and coil in fresh air pre-cooling applications. Results show that ER using cooling tower and coil has an energy savings range between 40% to 90% higher than those of thermal wheel and run-around-coils.
Providing Water Resiliency for Power and Process Cooling Application Thomas P. Carter, P.E. and James W. Furlong, P.E. of Johnson Controls, Inc. 2014
Abstract: Throughout the world, many users are or will be facing growing competition for the use of freshwater resources. Resulting restrictions in freshwater availability for evaporative cooling use may lead to potential production constraints. Johnson Controls has recently developed the Thermosyphon Cooler Hybrid System (TCHS), a combination of equipment and controls, which has the potential to significantly reduce make-up water requirements of conventional evaporative cooling systems while still maintaining the maximum peak process efficiencies on the hottest summer days. This paper will detail the TCHS and the ways it can provide water resiliency to power and processes relying on evaporative cooling.
Enhanced Cooling Tower For Colder Water, Energy Savings And Reduced Evaporation Jarrell Wenger, Engineering Economics, Inc. 2010
Abstract: This paper describes a novel, patent pending, two-stage evaporative cooling tower dry ambient air conditions. A heat recovery system is utilized between cooling tower discharge and intake to pre-cool warm and dry entering air to reduce its wet bulb temperature, dropping the theoretical cold water temperature limit to ambient dew point. For given ambient conditions, performance can be engineered through a combination of cooling tower component sizing and heat recovery effectiveness. Initial performance modeling predicts potential cold water temperatures well below ambient wet bulb. When operated to duplicate conventional cooling tower output for a given application, fan power savings from 10% to more than 50% can be achieved along with water consumption savings from 10% to more than 30%. If the enhanced cooling tower is operated as an evaporative chiller that can completely displace refrigeration equipment, cooling energy savings can range from 50% to 75%.
Water/Energy Nexus, Comparing the Relative Value Of Water Versus Energy Resources Jennifer Hamilton, Tom Bugler and John Lane, Evapco, Inc. 2010
Abstract: Both water and energy are critical natural resources that are interrelated in both their production and delivery. In addition, water and energy are used in HVAC and industrial cooling processes. In many cases, energy can be conserved through the use of water, and water can be conserved if energy usage is allowed to increase. This paper proposes a simple way to compare the use of both resources through an index of the ratio of power saved divided by the water invested. This index could be utilized to set relative values on water and energy usage for codes or for guidance in "green" applications. The index could be determined for regional or even local climate conditions.
Recent Developments in Motor Technology Allow Direct Drive of Low Speed Cooling Tower Fans: Part II Robbie McElveen and Bill Martin, Baldor Electric Company 2010
Abstract: This paper is a follow-up to a paper presented in 2009 concerning the use of permanent magnet motors for direct drive of cooling tower fans. In the previous paper, the authors presented a case study where an existing tower was retrofitted with a motor of this type. After a year in operation, the motor was removed from service, completely disassembled and inspected to determine how it performed in the harsh environment inside the cooling tower. Both the electrical integrity of the windings and mechanical attributes such as grease contamination are investigated. Data is supplied on subsequent field installations and the feasibility of larger horsepower machines is considered.
Evaluating Your Cooling Tower Richard DesJardins, DesJardins Consulting 2008
Abstract: Low life cost may not be the best method for selecting a cooling tower. Power consumption for pumps and fans, the cost of the basin, piping and electrical equipment, and the choice of tower layout should often be deciding factors. Optimization of tower design conditions related to other equipment such as heat exchangers, condensers or other equipment is discussed.
Variable Frequency Drives: Operation and Application with Evaporative Cooling Equipment Benjamin Cohen, Baltimore Aircoil Company 2007
Abstract: Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs) have become the preferred method of capacity control for evaporative cooling equipment, including cooling towers, fluid coolers, and evaporative condensers. By precisely matching fan motor speeds to the required building heat rejection, VFDs can significantly reduce energy consumption and operating costs of the entire system while providing operational benefits to the owner. This paper will explore the benefits of VFD operation while providing guidelines on proper application.
Cooling Towers and VFD's Rick Foree, Danfoss Drives 2001
Abstract: Brief description of a variable frequency (PWM) drive. A discussion on the mechanical and electrical advantages, including the energy savings and payback advantages. Power quality issues as it relates to VFD's with reference to a study by EPRI in 1996. Proper wiring methods for power and control wiring, as it relates in the U.S. and foreign countries utilizing CE guidelines.
Developing the Worth of Colder Water in a Steam Turbine Generating Station Thomas H. Hamilton, P.E. Consulting Engineer 2000
Abstract: Author uses Turbine-Generator manufacturer's typical Heat Rate Curve, Condenser Design Condition and Heat Exchanger Institute Correction Factors for Water Temperature correction to Heat Transfer Coefficient, annual hourly distribution of wet bulb temperatures, and the effect of wet bulb on cooling tower cold water temperature to show the effect cold water temperature has on annual plant mega watt hour output of a Steam Turbine Electric Generating Station. Paper includes calculation procedures, tables and curves that should be developed, and sample energy value to obtain the capital worth of colder water.
Variable Speed Fan Drives for Cooling Towers William F. Immell, The Marley Cooling Tower Company 1996
Abstract: The competitive nature of business today, coupled with incentives by utility companies is encouraging users to conserve energy by varying the speed of cooling tower fans in place of more traditional across the line cycling. There are several options available to exploit the benefits of the relationship between fan speed, cooling tower performance and fan horsepower. Variable frequency drives (VFD) are becoming the most popular alternative for controlling tower capacity by varying the fan speed, especially considering the technological advances in VFD's during the last two decades. A challenge in successful operation of cooling towers today with VFD's revolves more around proper application than technological limitations in the equipment. A concise discussion of the do's and don'ts of VFD's will be presented.
Strategies For Improved Cooling Tower Economy (TP-91-10) Steve Adams, Ecodyne Cooling Tower Services, and John Stevens, Film Cooling Towers 1991
Abstract: With today's trend towards minimum energy it is necessary for designers to continually reassess both operational requirements and design parameters specified. To reduce energy consumption nearer to design at other than design wet-bulb conditions, the specifications of variable speed motors must be considered, i.e. full speed and two-thirds full speed.
Counterflow Cooling Tower Design With High Energy Evaluations (TP-87-04) Paul Lindahl, Jr. & Thomas Bugler, III, The Marley Cooling Tower Company 1987
Abstract: High operating evaluations for cooling towers have led to new counterflow designs and changes in typical operating parameters. Experience has taught that such changes require detailed analysis. Extensive modeling and full-scale studies have defined limits for several parameters beyond which predictability of performance can suffer seriously. Precisely the economically optimum operating areas are affected. Evaluated price difference can be quite large between appropriately limited selections and optimum selections without regard to limits. Such differences have been demonstrated for both natural and mechanical draft. The largest potential impact occurs when difficult design conditions aggravate trends towards limits for natural draft.
Cold Water, Pumping Head and Energy Conservation (TP-85-04) Robert Burger, Burger Associates, Inc. 1985
Abstract: Energy conservation strategies in cooling towers involve more than a cursory examination of fan horsepower consumption. The optimization of cold water and analysis of pumping head can provide vast savings potential. The most important utilization of cooling tower water is the answer to the question, "What is the dollar value of 1°F colder water in your process?" and "What is the dollar cost of pumping water to the distribution system?" State-of-the-art retrofit will be discussed, pumping head reduction methodology investigated, and modern high heat transfer procedures illustrated with actual hands-on field examples.
A System Efficient Approach to Cooling Tower Energy Modifications (TP-85-18) Greg M. Kelly, The Marley Cooling Tower Company 1985
Abstract: The paper will discuss several modifications that can be made to existing crossflow and counterflow towers to enhance overall energy savings. The author will demonstrate the advantages of several modification choices from an optimized cost efficiency standpoint. Several typical examples will be presented along with appropriate charts and graphs to clarify proper application.
The Manufacturer and Energy-Efficient Cooling Towers (TP-228A) Kathleen M. Hunt-Atwater B.A.C. Pritchard, Inc. 1981
Abstract: A review of design considerations for mechanical draft cooling towers, with emphasis on those areas affecting energy consumption.
How To Minimize Energy Consumption With Variable-Speed Fan Control (TP-236A) Robert W. Corey, Emerson Electric Co., and John C. Campbell, Lilie Hoffmann Cooling Towers, Inc. 1981
Abstract: Adjustable frequency as a means of varying the speed of cooling tower fans is a way to optimize cooling tower energy consumption.

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