CTI Bibliography of Technical Papers - Environmental Impact

Revised 2016

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Environmental Impact
Order NumberTitleAuthorDate
New York Legionella Regulations: Are They Missing The Boat? Sarah Ferrari, Evapco, Inc. 2016
Abstract: A large outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease in the Bronx in 2015 prompted NYC to enact law and NYS to propose emergency regulations on the registration and maintenance of cooling towers. This paper describes the fundamental characteristics of point sourced vs. potable water sourced outbreaks and discusses the Bronx outbreak from those perspectives. Ultimately a case is made that these new regulations will not have a measurable impact on reducing the incidence of Legionellosis. Rather, more detailed and open-minded investigations of future outbreaks, including investigation of potential potable water sources, are called for to inform appropriate regulations and disease prevention activities.
Revision of the Best Available Technique (BREF) For Industrial Cooling Systems Martin Cordelle, EDF ( Electricité De France) 2015
Abstract: The BREF (Best References documents) Industrial Cooling System (ICS) is an European Communauty document which gives the ‘Best Available Technique’ in the environment field. The previous document written in 2001 was a guide line for the design of ICS. It will be established a new version in 2015; the conclusions will become prescriptive, for all European countries. It will take into account the evolution of regulation in Europe, technological progress and new scientific knowledge. The EDF company works to establish a ‘wish-list’ for the next version of the BREF ICS on specific issues: Efficiency of ICS, use of biocides, emissions of chemical substances and heat into surface water, reduce water needs, entrainment of fish, and reduction of noise. The present paper shows the key points for French utilities.
Sustainability in Cooling System Operation Roy Holliday, GE Water & Process Technologies 2014
Abstract: Several aspects of sustainability apply to cooling systems. These are related to the integrity and availability of the system from an operational standpoint, and impact upon the environment and ecological balance. This involved a multitude of factors, disciplines and operation, not only of the subject cooling system, but also of outside services and ecological systems. This paper presents and discusses various factors and topics that have an influence upon the sustainability of a cooling system, related to the operation and longevity of the cooling system, and impact upon the environment, with a view to improve sustainability.
How “Green” is the Cooling System? Roy A. Holliday, Gary E. Geiger, Peter Geuns, GE Water & Process Technologies 2012
Abstract: Design, operation and treatment of cooling systems can encompass many techniques to fulfill both the desires of Industry and Management to improve its environmental image. Environmental impact reaches much further than the “greenness” of a given cooling water treatment chemical in the discharge from a cooling system. When assessed in depth, “traditional” chemicals or treatments may be “greener” than conventionally imagined or portrayed. Non-Chemical Devices (NCDs) have great appeal when talking of the impact of treatment chemicals. “Marketing” of some treatment chemicals emphasizes their “biodegradability”. Some aspects of “environmental impact” of various approaches to the design, operation and treatment of open evaporative cooling systems are discussed.
Plume Abatement - The Next Generation Paul Lindahl, SPX Cooling Technologies 2010
Abstract: Cooling towers have been modified to reduce the visibility of their effluent water vapor plumes for about 40 years. The evolution, breadth of experience and technologies of plume abatement cooling towers will be described. An evolutionary improvement to existing plume abatement designs using a different heat transfer approach will be described, including some of the development and demonstration achievements to date. Differences from currently used coil-type wet/dry tower designs and benefit.
Design Considerations for Cooling Tower Systems with Critical Demands Frank Bowman and Mike Bickerstaff, Composite Cooling Solutions, L.P. 2010
Abstract: There are several factors that need to be addressed prior to determining the appropriate cooling tower system for a facility with critical demands. Locations such as data centers, medical centers, airports, electronic chip manufacturers, etc. require special considerations in addition to the requirements of an average cooling tower system. This paper will review the normal design considerations encountered in designing custom built cooling tower systems with critical demands and will elaborate to include the special design considerations necessary for “Mission Critical Cooling Facilities.” Such considerations include building codes, customer requirements, environmental constraints, operational components, fire resistance, safety compliance, minimum maintenance, and a long service life that are mandatory for these critical cooling applications.
Hurricane and Crawfish - A Unique Clarification Problem Mike Doresey, DuPont 2009
Abstract: Hurricane Rita came ashore just east of Orange Texas on September 24, 2005. The event caused major damage in Orange County and subsequently the loss of consistent power persisted for weeks. This paper will discuss what the aftermath created for "Chemical Row Industries" with its raw water make-up source and how crawfish was determined to be a primary contributor.
Atmospheric Emissions from Evaporative Cooling Towers Wayne Micheletti, Wayne C. Micheletti, Inc. 2005
Abstract: Evaporative cooling systems are common elements in many industrial processes, ranged from manufacturing to power production to refining. Because these systems can use large amounts of water, discussions of potential environmental issues usually focus on water intake or wastewater discharge concerns. However, atmospheric emissions from cooling towers can also be important considerations. This paper reviews the major environmental regulations governing atmospheric emissions from cooling towers and examines some of the ways in which associated permit limits might influence cooling tower design and operation.
Molybdate Use in Cooling Towers: Impact of the New EPA Sludge Rule and Alternative Approaches Brian Lee & Brian Vaska, Drew Industrial Division 1994
Abstract: Sodium molybdate is widely used as a corrosion inhibitor in recirculating cooling water systems. Molybdate exhibits comparatively low aquatic toxicity and was therefore apart of the EPA's rationale for limiting chromate use in comfort cooling towers. The EPA's recent final ruling on molybdenum in sludge (40CFR, 503.13, 2/19/93) is unnecessarily stringent and in conflict with previous EPA rulings. This paper will examine specific concerns over molybdate discharge, the EPA's justification for these new limits and future prospects for the use of molybdate as well as end-user impact.
The Latest Worldwide Technology in Environmentally Designed Cooling Towers (TP-92-02) Gary R. Mirsky, Jean-Pierre Libert, & Kathy Bryant, Hamon Cooling Towers and Franz Bouton, Hamon Sobelco, S.A. 1992
Abstract: Many cooling tower designs now require special consideration to reduce their impact on the environment and facilitate site permitting. Unique designs will be discussed including: low noise applications; injection of scrubbed flue gas into natural draft cooling towers; drift requirements as low as .0001%; new EPA testing methods, environmentally critical thermal performance; removal; redesign and replacement of asbestos products with alternate materials; water conservation; zero discharge towers and elimination of plume through the use of a wet/dry cooling tower.
Comparison of Cooling Tower Mineral Mass Emmissions by Isokinetic EPA Method 13A and Heated Cascade Impactor Tests (TP-91-12) Gordon Israelson, P.E., Westinghouse Electric Corp. and Nicholas M. Stich & Thomas E. Weast, P.E., Midwest Research Institute 1991
Abstract: Separate isokinetic EPA Method 13A and heated impactor tests of one cell of each of three (3) cooling towers in an industrial facility were performed during November 1989. The purpose of the EPA 13A test was to measure the total rate of mineral mass emissions. The heated cascade impactor isokinetic tests were performed to characterize the size of the mineral particulate emissions less than 10 micron in diameter (PM) after the water had evaporated from the drift droplets. Passing the wet sample through stream through a heated quartz tube to dry the drift droplets followed by separating the particles by size using an Anderson Mark III stack sampler performed the particle size characterization. The tests were performed within days of each other under similar operating and environmental conditions. The tests were performed within days of each other under similar operating and environmental conditions. The tests were redundant in terms of measuring the total mineral emission sand resulted in similar measurements of the total mineral emission sand resulted in similar measurements of the total mineral mass emission rate. The emissions rate measured by the EPA Method 13A averaged 102.6% of the rate measured by the heated cascade impactor isokinetic tests.
Cooling Tower Asbestos Abatement or Close Encounters with EPA, OSHA, ET AL (TP-88-10) Robert Burger, Burger and Associates, Inc. 1988
Abstract: EPA and OSHA have promulgated rules and regulations for protecting our environment and people living and working under hazardous conditions. References are made to toxic substances such as PCB's, acids, chemicals and asbestos, etc. While we in the cooling tower industry realize the use of asbestos is not particularly dangerous, the regulations make no provision for this and to comply with all statues, apparently over-kill must be utilized. However, it behooves contractors and owners of asbestos materials not to test or evade the laws. The presentation covers an overview of the cause of asbestosis with the environmental and work condition regulations imposed by the government. Slides will show how these protective measures are carried out on the job site together with the necessary generation of paperwork complied by the Industrial Hygienist at the workplace, which is filed for 30 years, with a copy to the customer and contractor for protection against possible lawsuits by workers. Action by governmental agencies guidelines, safeguards and procedures are delineated.
A Pilot Study to Detect Vegetation Stress Around a Cooling Tower (TP-210A) Suresh B. Pahwa & Brent L. Shipley, Intera Environmental Consultants, Inc. 1979
A Summary of Federal and State Requirements for Commercial Applicators of Pesticides (TP-214B) D.L. Wilbur, The Mogul Corp. 1979
Toxicology of Cooling Water Treatment Chemicals (TP-207A) Florence K. Kinoshita, Hercules Inc. 1979
Environmental Impace of Chemicals Washed From Preservative-Treated Wood (TP-147A) J.R. DeMonbrun, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Union Carbide Corporation 1976
Interception and Retention of Cooling Tower Drift on Vegetation (TP-151A) F.G. Taylor, Jr., D.D. Gray & P.D. Parr, Oak Ridge National Laboratory 1976
Programmatic Descriptic Description for Environmental Monitoring and Pollution Abatement at the Y-12 Plant (TP-135A) Merwyn Sanders, Union Carbide Corporation 1975
Environmental Considerations in Cooling Tower Treatment (TP-136A) Art F. Brunn, E.I. DuPont de Nemours & Company 1975
Case Study of the Environmental Effects of the Chalk Point Natural Draft Cooling Tower (TP-143A) Thomas B. Carlson & Frederick M. Shofner, Environmental Systems Corp. and Jerry Pell, State of Maryland 1975
Industry - Living with EPA Regulations Promulgated to Meet the FWPCA Amendments of 1972 (TP-134A) Jay G.Weidman, Betz Laboratories 1975
The Preparation of a Master List of Chemicals Used in Cooling Towers for Use in Preparation of Environmental Impact Statement (TP-114A) Robert H. Rainey, Oak Ridge National Laboratory 1973
Water Pollution Abatement Brings New Ideas to the Cleaning Water Industry (TP-101A) Allan L. Farber, Tenneco Chemicals, Inc. 1972
Thermal Discharges: Their Role in the Environment (TP-105A) Carl E. Knapp Lewicke, Environmental Science & Tech. An American Chemical Society Publications 1971
Environmental Aspects of Cooling Tower Plumes (TP-78A) Eric Aynsley, IIT Research Institute 1970
Abstract: This paper outlines the air pollution aspects of water cooling towers in relation to the future trends, especially in the power generating industry. It will also include mention of the possible inadvertent weather modification effects associated with larger units such as natural draft hyperbolic towers.
Trends in Thermal Pollution Control Requirements(TP-81A) J.I. Bregman, Water Pollution Research and Applications, Inc. 1970
Abstract: The guidelines of equal treatment for various beneficial uses would appear to be simple, but they generally have not been followed. When the water quality standards-setting exercises began, the states tended to set standards that favored existing uses, and particularly industry. The propagation of fish and wildlife was a secondary factor. Today, the pendulum has swung completely in the other direction. One often gets the impression that the propagation of fish and wildlife is the sole purpose of the water quality standards. Standards are being proposed, primarily by the Federal Government to the states that would turn our rivers into gigantic fisheries and close down the industries on their banks. Neither the earlier approach nor the present one is correct. The pendulum must come back to the middle of the arc. In almost any event, regardless of whether the pendulum is at one end or the other, or back in the middle where it belongs, the cooling tower industry is going to boom as a result of the imposition of temperature standards.
Cooling Towers, The Environment and the Future (TP-88A) Eric Aynsley, IIT Research Institute 1970
Thermal Criteria - A Measure to Control Thermal Pollution (TP-77A) Satyendra P. Mathur & Donald B. Stevens, NY Dept. of Health 1970
Abstract: The Governor's Electric Power Committee has forecasted an increase in power requirements form 13,000,000 KW in 1965 to 22,000,000 KW in 1975 and to 48,000,000 KW in 1990. The major power companies in New York State have firm plans to add 7,440,000 KW by 1973, over 70% of which will be nuclear plants. As a result of the Federal Water Quality Act, 1965, the Water Resources Commission of New York State developed, and after considerable deliberation, adopted Thermal Criteria on July 25, 1969. According to the thermal criteria, the waters of the state are classified as: Non-trout water; Trout waters; Lakes, Estuaries and Coastal Waters. There are different temperature criterions for each of the five classifications of water. These criteria are used, as guidelines and the actual criterion will be determined on site-by-site basis to protect the "best usage" assigned to the receiving waters.
Thermal Pollution: A Survey of Cause and Effect (TP-61A) Michael C. Noland, Midwest Research Institute 1969
Concept of Environmental Planning and Design (TP-71A) Ashley Martin, Babbitt-Martin & Associates, Inc. 1969
Review of Thermal Pollution Problems, Standards and Controls at the State Government Level (TP-41A) William S. Crumlish, P.E., Spkr-Texas Water Quality Board 1968
The Subcommittee on Air and Water Pollution of the Senate Committee on Public Works (TP-42A) Tor Kolflat, Sargent and Lundy 1968
Monitoring and Control of Industrial Air and Water (TP-43A) K.D. Ripley, Dow Chemical Co. 1968
An Economic and Engineering Analysis of Municipal Wastewater Renovation (TP-50A) J.W. Porter, A.N. Hopkins & W.L. Fisher, Bechtel Corporation 1968
The Relationship of Cooling Tower Operation to Pollution Control (TP-26A) M.C. Forbes, Aquatrol, Inc. 1967

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