CTI Bibliography of Technical Papers - Fills

Revised 2017

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Order NumberTitleAuthorDate
A Study on Bio-fouling Characteristics of Contemporary Trickle and Modular Splash Fills Angela Zaorski and William C. Miller, Brentwood Industries, Inc. 2017
Abstract: The development and marketing of contemporary modular trickle and splash fills has yielded a perception that any “wire frame model” type fill offers similar resistance to fouling as classic splash bar fills. However laboratory testing and real world experiences have shown that these fills exhibit similar responses to bio-fouling problems as film fills with respect to product design and flute geometry. A systematic laboratory method of evaluating weight gain due to bio-fouling and sediment accumulation illustrates the effects that these different design elements have on the actual fouling resistnace of this type of fill.
Time and Temperature Dependent Mechanical Behavior of PP Fills Nina Woicke, ENEXIO Water Technologies GmbH 2017
Abstract: Mechanical behavior of plastic components are not only dependent on the pure load or load case (e.g. bending vs. pure compression), but also on the loading time and temperature. The impact of these two factors will be discussed in this paper based on different testing results for polypropylene. Additionally a simplified viscoelastic model has been derived from that data to get a general idea for the engineering of plastic fills.
Novel Methods to Characterize Cooling Tower Fill Fire Resistance Jia Shen and Karl Koch, Brentwood Industries Inc. 2017
Abstract: ASTM #84, “Standard Test Method for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials”, was adopted as a product test by CTI and has presented inaccuracy in characterizing the risk level of a cooling tower fill in sustaining a fire. The gas burner does not represent a common fire source in a cooling tower and the ceiling horizontal burning does not represent typical cooling tower fill burning behavior. In this paper, we present a series of novel test methods that are accurate in characterizing the fire resistance of a cooling tower fill. The most common sources of ignition in cooling towers are burning plastics or extremely high temperature metals. In the proposed test methods, burning polypropylene (PP) and stainless steel plate at 1100C were applied to the top of cooling tower fill samples. The weight loss of media, burning time, and propagation of the flame were recorded to characterize the fire resistance of the product.
Mechanical Behavior Of Polymer Fills Nina Woicke, Ph.D and Daniel Dierenfeld, GEA 2H Water Technologies GMBH 2016
Abstract: This paper will outline the mechanical properties of polymer fills and discuss the influence of different parameters (like design, foil thickness, PP vs PVC) as well as the influence of the boundary in cooling tower surrounding.
Advancements In Cleaning And Passivation Raymond M. Post, P.E. and Prasad Kalakodimi, Ph.D, ChemTreat 2016
Abstract: Cooling Systems and equipment that are not properly cleaned and passivated prior to entering service will experience corrosion problems that are difficult to overcome once the system is placed in operation. This paper reports on recent developments in cleaning and passivation chemistry that are applicable to new cooling systems and to older systems requiring rust removal and passivation. Laboratory electrochemical results will be presented as well as plant application case histories.
Comparison Of Fouling Kinetics On Four Different Fills Operated In Pilot Cooling Towers Aurélie Mabrouk Ph.D and Mohamed Azarou, EDF 2016
Abstract: EDF operates 30 condenser open cooling circuits in its French nuclear power plants (NPP). In order to extend their lifetime, the company has to carry out major renovations of the fills located in the cooling towers, which need to be replaced after around 30 years. The choice of a fill is determined by the results of preliminary tests. The following tests are conducted on fill: mechanical strength, fire resistance, thermal performance, and evaluation of fouling risk. An experimental study was realized in order to study and differentiate the fouling risk of four different fills on an industrial pilot unit. The pilot is constituted of four reduced-scale open cooling circuits (around 15 thermal kW) able to mimic the thermal and chemical behavior of an industrial cooling circuit such as those found in nuclear power plants.
Modular Splash Fill Matthew Dahm, GEA Heat Exchangers Inc. and Nina Woicke, GEA 2H Water Technologies 2015
Abstract: This paper will discuss the benefits and thermal performance levels of modular splash fills vs. common film fill mediums in cooling towers and the change of those levels over the useful life of the fill. We will also examine the typical life cycle, durability and maintenance of modular splash fill. Last, we will review the advantage from being able to run at higher cycles of concentration, assistances for applications involving the use of gray water for makeup and for implementing in water conservation projects, which is vastly becoming a larger conversation topic due to the constant push from governing organizations.
Study on the Combustion of Polymers within Cooling Towers Chris Bowman and Jia Shen, Brentwood Industries 2015
Abstract: Polymers used in cooling towers are available in varying degrees of flammability risk, which, historical standards such as ASTM E84 may not accurately represent fully. This paper will discuss the science behind the inherent burning characteristics of different polymers, including how they burn and how flame retardants work to minimize the burning characteristics, as well as the ignition characteristics with respect to cooling towers in real world scenarios outside of a laboratory. There are many flammability standards used worldwide which will be reviewed as part of the scope of this paper. Cooling tower component manufacturers are using increasingly varied formulations of polymers in the manufacture of their products so it is prudent to analyze if current testing standards provide the complete picture of a cooling tower's susceptibility to initiating and propagating a fire event. By this analysis the attempt can be made to more thoroughly address deficiencies in engineering specifications that may not tell the whole story regarding the magnitude of risk associated with utilizing certain polymer formulations within cooling towers.
Fill Testing in Cooling Tower in Case of Fouling Issues Helene Troncin, EDF Septen 2012
Abstract: As a utility company, EDF operates 32 cooling towers in France. The cooling towers of EDF NPP are located in various places fed by rivers. They were designed to function with untreated raw water as make-up. Sometimes we are applying acid treatments of the circulation water, against scaling. Last years, some towers suffered from important fouling issues and we had to clean, to remove and sometimes to change fills. EDF has to do the right choice when retrofitting a cooling tower. EDF made tests on thermal performances thanks to Mistral Test facility and installed pieces of different types of packing in weighing machines onsite.
Film Fill Fouling: Updated Methods, Results, and Predictions Ken Mortensen, SPX Cooling Technologies 2012
Abstract: Film fill fouling is an important problem in modern power plant and industrial process cooling. This paper will present current laboratory and field fouling evaluation methods. Also reviewed are the history of application of various film fill geometries, in-situ water conditions, and the resulting condition of those fills.
Fill Design In Relation With Fouling And Scaling Resistance Michel Monjoie, Monjoie Cooling 2011
Abstract: The paper gives the guides lines of the fill design in relation with the fouling and the scaling resistance. It describes several fill type; film, mesh, splash and explain the fouling - scaling resistance in relation with layout, design. These explanations are supported by tests. The paper concludes with guidelines for fouling and scaling control.
A Novel Approach to Design Compact Mass Transfer Packing for Maximum Efficiency Dr. Hamid Reza Goshayshi, Azad University 2009
Abstract: The optimum heat and mass transfer area at which minimum cost exists throughout the technical life of forced draft counter cooling tower is studied in the present work. Original formula are developed and presented for the best thermoeconomical performance as a design point. Also in this paper an investigation is made using measurements of the mass transfer rates and pressure drops for a comprehensive range of PVC plastic packing producing an economic comparison to find the best geometry and range. In order to do this, heat transfer and pressure drop for turbulent conditions in fills used in the modern cooling tower have to be studied. A new method of comparison for existing cooling tower fills has been developed and the performance of the best packing has been expressed in relation to the ideal packing.
Flame Retardance of Polymer Film Fills Dr. Nina Woicke, GEA 2H KUnststoff GmbH 2009
Abstract: While PVC is long known as a flame retardant polymer, other plastics have the reputation of high flammability. Whereas this is true for standard polyolefin materials, modern polypropylene products with high efficient flame retardant additives can even beat the good fire properties of normal PVC.In this study film fills for cooling towers made of PVC and of a flame retardant PP are tested by several different methods and international standards to evaluate the actual performance of these two materials.
Design and Operation of a Counterflow Fill and Nozzle Test Cell: Challenges and Solutions Jean-Pierre R. Libert - EvapTech, Inc. 2007
Abstract: While factory-assembled cooling towers are compact enough to be tested and certified in environmental test chambers, field-erected towers can only be tested on-site once built. In order to rate them beforehand, their components must be tested individually in test cells designed to that effect. The size of the test cells, their configuration, operation and the instrumentation used to capture the fundamental thermodynamic data require money, time and good engineering skills to be able to acquire meaningful and useful data.
Guidelines for Selecting the Proper Film Fill Donald Zelek, Brentwood Industries 2006
Abstract: For many years PVC film fills have been the most popular choice of heat transfer media for use in cooling towers. Throughout this history, design features of these fills have continued to evolve from the first cross corrugated products through vertically fluted fills to today's popular combination designs. Some of these features are not obvious to the casual observer and if not chosen correctly can adversely affect tower performance, product cost, lifespan, or ease of installation. This paper traces the history of these fill designs while providing guidelines as to the proper fill selection.
High Performance Ceramic Fill Peter Fay, Consultant and Ann Engh, Sandkuhl Clay Works, Inc. 2006
Abstract: The cooling tower industry has long sought without success to find the ideal fill. Such a fill would have high performance, low fouling tendency, durability, non-flammability, elevated temperature capability, non-hazardous environmental characteristics, freeze-thaw capability and good economics.
A Performance Comparison of Counterflow Reduced Fouling Fills Toby L. Daley, P.E., T Daley & Associates, Inc. 2006
Abstract: This paper will present the recent testing results of counterflow film and splash type reduced fouling fill configurations. It will present a comparison of the relative performance of the fills. This recent testing program provides a today's performance perspective of the most commonly used fills of this type.
Low Clog Film Fill - New Approaches Kenneth P. Mortensen, Marley Cooling Tower Company &Stephen N. Conley, Marley Cooling Tower Company, Development Ctr 2001
Abstract: Low clog fill configurations have been dominated by vertical tube geometrics since these products were first offered. Other significant geometrics have now been lab tested and field evaluated with outstanding results. Better economy, with proper thermal performance, and good fouling protection are the evident results of this testing. These possibilities are discussed with illustrative pictures and data presented.
Recycling Contaminated and Fouled PVC Fill Michel Monjoie, Serge Vigier, Hamon Thermal Europe 2001
Abstract: The fill of several large nuclear natural drift cooling tower in France were severely fouled and contaminated with bacterium. The fill removed during the repack is treated in a transportable facility located on site close to the cooling tower. In the facility, the fill is cut in small parts, the mud and the scaling is separated from the PVC. The collected mud and scaling are treated to kill all bacterium. It can be recycled in a cement factory as example. The PVC is also treated to obtain the output of the facility clean PVC ready for recycling.
Design Features and their Affect on High Performance Fill Rich Aull & Tim Krell, Brentwood Industries, Inc. 2000
Abstract: In the design of a high performance cooling tower fill, many design features must be considered to produce optimum performance. This paper will show laboratory test data and detail the effect on fill performance of the following items; Flute geometry (cross-corrugated, offset-tube, vertical tube), Cross-corrugated flute angle, Sheet pitch (19mm vs. 20mm vs. 17mm vs. 12mm), Microstructure (course, fine, none), Material (PVC & polypropylene), Module depth (12' layers vs. 24" layers vs. 48" layers), Tip design (Alternate tips vs. straight tips).
A Comparison of Crossflow Cooling Tower Splash-Type Fills Robert Fulkerson, Fulkerson Enterprises 1999
Abstract: This paper will describe the testing of twenty commonly used crossflow fill configurations. It will present the mathematical procedure used to analyze the data, and it will give a procedure to be used to compare the relative performance of the fills.
Fill Fouling Control in Cooling Towers F. Philip Yu, Anthony W. Dallmier, William F. McCoy, Nalco Chemical Company 1998
Abstract: The introduction of high efficiency film fill has significantly increased cooling tower performance. However, film fill is more susceptible to fouling than conventional splash fill. This paper discusses two power plants which both have a long history of fouling problems using film fill despite various biocide treatment programs. With the implementation of combined biocide/biodispersant treatments, effective fill fouling control is achieved. Significant reductions in film fill deposits were observed in both power plants. In addition, one cooling tower also gained significant thermal performance (expresses as % capability) shortly after the treatment started.
Innovative Application of Film Fill in Large Industrial Crossflow Cooling Towers David Suptic, The Marley Cooling Tower Company 1995
Abstract: This paper documents thermal performance improvements in large industrial crossflow cooling towers through the innovative application of film fill. Includes discussion of new crossflow tower design that delivers film fill performance previously available only in large industrial counterflow cooling towers. The paper highlights the successful replacement of a large splash bar fill crossflow tower with a new film fill crossflow tower at a midwestern power plant. Benefits of increased capacity, lower near field sound level, and elimination of falling water splash out are also identified.
NPF Cooling Tower Fill - Its Development and Demonstration E. Hobson, & T.H. Massey, National Power Plc, Paul Lindahl, The Marley Cooling Tower Co. 1995
Abstract: The development of NPF, a cooling tower fill, is described. This has low fouling characteristics whilst retaining thermal performance. NPF consists of PVC sheets bounded together into blocks. The sheets have triangular primary corrugation. Each sheet also has small-scale secondary ridges. The first installation has recently taken place in a 300MW cooling tower at Didcot Power Station, England. This demonstration installation and improvements achieved over the packing previously installed in that tower will be described.
Research of Fouling Film Fill (TP-93-06) Michel Monjoie, Hamon-Sobelco, S.A., Russell Noble, Southern Company Services, Gary R. Mirsky, Hamon Cooling Tower 1993
Abstract: Hamon and Southern Services have been conducting a variety of fouling tests on many different film fills available commercially worldwide. These tests have been ongoing for several years on sidestreams and actual cooling tower applications. The results of weight gain, pressure increase, and efficiency changes will be presented.
Influence of Fill Type and Flow Orientation on the Lewis Number (TP-93-08) Dudley J. Benton, TVA Engineering Laboratory 1993
Abstract: As a follow-up to previous analysis of counterflow film and crossflow splash fill, the Lewis number is determined from experimental data for counterflow splash and crossflow film fill. The relative influence of fill type (film/splash) and flow orientation (counter/crossflow) on the Lewis number is examined in light of this more complete data set.
Cooling Tower Film Fill Water Quality/Operations Guidelines For Successful Utilization (TP-92-06) James G. Kanuth & Paul R. Puckorius, Puckorius & Associates, Inc. 1992
Abstract: Film pack use has expanded greatly for both new and up-graded cooling towers. To successfully maintain fill efficiency and to minimize deposit accumulation the water quality, water treatment and tower operation must all be addressed. This paper presents a number of case histories in utilities, petroleum, chemical and HVAC cooling systems. Guidelines are given for trouble-free pack fill performance and "cleaning-up" fouled fill.
Cleaning and Maintenance of Film Fill at Florida Power Corporation (TP-92-09) David Pearson & Jim Witherow Florida Power Corporation and Barbara McClung, Calgon Corporation 1992
Abstract: With wider use of highly efficient film and increasing interest in water conservation many cooling towers are experiencing plugging associated with the concentration of suspended solids from the make-up water. This plugging can reduce tower performance and in some utilities has necessitated load reduction. A reduction of plugging and maintenance of fill cleanliness has been achieved using low levels of polymeric dispersant. Product application, monitoring and performance evaluation are discussed.
Evaluation of Plastic Fill For High Temperature Service (TP-91-03) Steven C. Blue, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. 1991
Abstract: The creep resistances of plastic cellular fill for service above 140°F was investigated by tests of product forms and laboratory material tests. The behavior of fill can be predicted from the results of short-term laboratory tests.
Determination of the Turbulent Lewis Number From Experimental Data for Wet Cooling Tower Fill (TP-90-07) Dudley J. Benton, Tennessee Valley Authority 1990
Abstract: Some of the difficulties and anomalies encountered when computing separate heat and mass transfer coefficients from wet cooling tower fill test data are presented. The Lewis analogy, which has historically been used to relate the sensible and evaporative transfers, is examined in light of this data.
Film Fill Recent Research and Application Data (TP-90-11) Gary R. Mirsky, Hamon Cooling Towers and Michel Monjoie, Hamon-Sobelco, S.A. 1990
Abstract: This paper focuses specifically on historical and application data regarding film fill. Topics covered will include historical background, recent design developments, thermal design comparison, comparison of dead load capacity vs. sheet thickness, resistance to clogging analysis, suitability of designs in various types of cooling towers and typical manufacturing QA/QC procedures.
Comparative Efaluation of Counterflow Cooling Tower Fills (TP-88-05) Robert D. Fulkerson, Cooling Tower Technology 1988
Abstract: This paper will discuss the testing and development of heat transfer and pressure drop data for several commonly used counterflow fill materials. The paper will also cover the use of this data in connection with the CTI Blue Book to rate towers and evaluate bids on proposed towers.
The Usage of Fiber Cement as a Film Type Fill Media in Evaporative Cooling Towers (TP-88-09) John W. Cooper, Jr., Heinz Treuberg & Dr. Heiko Klauss, Toschi USA, Inc. 1988
Abstract: This paper provides a chronology of the use of fiber cement as a film-type fill media in evaporative cooling towers. Three decades of worldwide experience with asbestos-cement fill systems are reviewed. Topics of discussion include design variations, durability, and thermal performance aspects of the various fiber-cement fill-system designs. Economic and regulatory forces behind the continued large-scale usage of asbestos-free fiber-cement fill sytems in West Germany's cooling towers are explored.
Evolution of Cooling Tower Fill (TP-84-03) Gary R. Mirsky, Custodis-Hamon Constructors, Inc. and J. Bauthier, Hamon-Sobelco, S.A. 1984
Abstract: Discusses the state-of-the-art and history of the development of fill in counterflow and crossflow cooling towers. The paper will cover application principles, economics, and test methodology used to assure accurate performance predictions. The scope of the paper will address designs used worldwide for both power and industrial projects and address such issues as the various materials used, splash cooling designs, and film cooling designs.
Plastic for Splash Fill and Drift Eliminators (TP-84-17) Keith A. Sharf, Doron Plastics Co. 1984
Abstract: This paper will cover advantages and disadvantages of plastics now used in cooling towers, such as PVC, CPVC, PP, and ABS. This will include present costs and trends, physical characteristics, resistance to chemicals and to environment. It will also cover flame spread ratings. Within the PVC family it will discuss regrinds, different plasticizers, and different compound deflection temperatures.
Seismic Evaluation of Spaced Tile Fill (TP-275A) Richard White, P.E., Ceramic Cooling Tower Company 1983
Abstract: A credible seismic evaluation of any cooling tower fill material is a marriage between analytical and experimental techniques. This paper discusses the seismic evaluation of the spaced tile fill in the condenser water-cooling towers for the Intermountain Power Project (IPP) located in Delta, Utah. Using the results of the IPP investigation guidelines were generated for the seismic evaluation of spaced tile fill in cooling tower located in both the eastern and western United States.
Condition of Preservative Treated Cooling Tower Slats After 10-Year Service (TP-96A) Lee R. Gjovik, B. Alan Bendtsen & H.G. Roth, Forest Products Laboratory 1972
Cellular Cooling Tower Fill (TP-32A) George Meek, The Munters Corporation 1967

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