CTI Bibliography of Technical Papers - Fouling

Revised 2014

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Order NumberTitleAuthorDate
Pairing Two Proprietary Technologies Key to Power Plant Efficiency Increases Darcy Dauterive and Jeff Kisty, Ashland Water Technologies 2014
Abstract: A zero liquid discharge power plant, with five ppm of iron in the make-up water, had been experiencing condenser fouling for over twenty years. The plant was shut down two to three times per year to clean the condenser in order to maintain efficient power production. The condenser and fill fouling was estimated to cost the plant approximately 5% in lost efficiency. Major changes were implemented to the traditional microbiological control, deposit control, and side stream softening programs that the plant had used for years. In order to assess the program performance, an OnGuard 2-plus analyzer was installed on the cooling system. This proprietary monitoring/control system accurately simulates the steady state conditions in plant heat exchangers while revealing differentiation among various causes of fouling (i.e. sedimentation, scaling, microbiological, etc.). This diagnostic tool, acting as a window into the cooling system, was essential to validating the response to the treatment program changes before they could impact plant efficiency. As a result of the program modifications, the plant is setting power generating records and shows no indication of condenser fouling.
Anionic Compatible Quat? Philip Sweeny, LONZA, Inc. 2007
Abstract: Sunlight exposed cooling towers can develop significant algae-related fouling problems. The presence of these algal mats or stringers clearly shows that the cooling water program is out of control. In addition this fouling will often block the tower fill causing reduced efficacy.
Anatomy of Enhanced Heat Exchanger Tubing. Thomas M. Laronge, Thomas M. Laronge, Inc. and Mark A. Lisin, Lisin Metallurgical Services 2002
Abstract: Conservation of mass and energy are widely accepted as fundamental laws of classic science. During the last quarter of the Twentieth Century, these same precepts became business mandates. Surface condenser manufacturers mutated traditional straight heat exchanger tubes under these mandates to enhanced species. Heat exchangers equipped with enhanced tubes are often claimed to conserve energy by 20-35%. Their work examines some typical examples of commercial enhanced tubing and discusses some of the shortcomings observed when enhanced heat exchanger tubing is removed from service.
Designed to Fail (Heat Exchanger Designs that Lead to Failure). T.J. Tvedt, Jr., Puckorius & Associates, Inc. 2002
Abstract: Root cause investigations of failures in heat exchangers that are used in cooling water service often reveal that design conditions were a major contributor to the failure. This paper will review several of the most commonly encountered design problems and show how they inevitably lead to severe corrosion and/or fouling. Examples will be used to illustrate design failures. Guidelines will be suggested on heat exchanger design methods to minimize the potential for future failures.
An Innovative Biodetergent for Fouling Control F. Philip Yu, Mike G. Groshans, Nalco Chemical Company & Yu-Mei Lu, A.S. Huang, Taiwan Nalco Chemical Co., Ltd 2001
Abstract: Biofouling control has always been a difficult task for cooling tower treatment programs. The growth of biofilm can aggravated mineral scaling and the deposition of corrosion products. Unchecked biofouling can lead to shut down cooling water operations and created potential human exposure hazards. This paper describes the application of an innovative biodetergent technology to complement conventional biocide programs for fouling control. Two case studies are reported on cooling towers in a utility and a petrochemical plant. The biodetergent treatment helped recover cooling tower performance, cleaned up algal masses and reduced biofilms in the cooling systems.
High Efficiency 0.5 Micron Sand Filtraton Bryan Hayward, Diamond Filtration Inc. 2001
Abstract: A discussion of applications of high efficiency filtration on cooling towerwater, process water, and RO makeup. Case studies with particle analysis results, energy efficiency studies, etc. Discussion of effects of high efficiency filtration on bacteria,bio-film, corrosion, tower fill fouling and SDI.
Fill Fouling in Counterflow Cooling Towers: Experimental & Field Kenneth P. Mortensen, P.E., Stephen N. Conley, Marley Cooling Tower Company 1998
Abstract: Accelerated equal basis lab testing is used for comparative fouling tests on second-generation Low-Clog fills, optimizing their thermal/low-fouling capabilities for a specific cooling duty/water condition. Fill selection guidelines are given. Tower application experience, including petrochemical, sugar, paper, geothermal power, and conventional power (surface and salt water cooled). Is reviewed for first generation low-fouling designs. Cleaning methods for high-performance film fills are discussed.
Optical Monitor for Improved Fouling Control in Cooling Systems R.L. Wetegrove, R.H. Banks, M.R. Hermiller, Nalco Chemical Company 1996
Abstract: Control of soft deposits in cooling systems is an important objective of water treatment programs. Traditional ways of monitoring include measuring suspended solids, counting planktonic microorganisms, and surface fouling methods involving coupons, pressure drop, and heat transfer resistance. In this paper we describe a simple, on-line, optical technique of continuous monitoring of surface fouling. This automated instrument records fouling data and has the advantages of alarm and product feed control capability; with a serial computer interface. Results from extensive field trials have demonstrated excellent correlations with standard monitoring methods and treatment levels.
Film Fill Fouling in Counterflow Cooling Towers: Mechanism and Design Kenneth P. Mortensen & Stephen N. Conley, The Marley Cooling Tower Company 1994
Abstract: Counterflow Film Fill Media was tested in a laboratory created environment that encouraged rapid fouling, allowed comparison of product features and application variables on an equal basis. The laboratory fouling mechanism mimicked field reports of problems and allowed testing without risk to end user equipment. Several important water chemistry parameters were also defined via this testing. Substantial enhancement of fill geometry for fouling environments was documented and lab tests were correlated with substantial field experience for identical products. Finally, the relationship of relative fouling load to thermal performance is investigated.
Fouling of Film Forming Cooling Tower Fills - A Mechanistic Approach J.S. Gill, M.A. Yorke, R.M. Donlan & D.L. Gibbon, Calgon Corp. 1994
Abstract: Fouling of high efficiency film forming cooling tower fill is a major water problem facing the industry, especially the utility industry. The paper focuses on the three main processes responsible for fouling honey-comb PVC fill - water borne, e.g. silt, clay or other suspended solids; water formed, e.g. sparingly soluble minerals; and biological. Fouling mechanism is studied by examining the relationship of microorganism, extra cellular polymer, clay particles, and precipitates in the fouling process using laboratory and pilot cooling towers containing Munters Fill. The conclusions are verified with field data.
New Application Technology For Controlling Algal Fouling in Recirculating Cooling Water Systems (TP-88-15) A.L. Smith, R.A. Muia & M.O. Clancy, Calgon Corporation 1988
Abstract: This paper presents laboratory and field data that describes the very successful application of a new microbiocide for control and removal of persistent and heavy algal growths. Algae control was achieved with the use of Microbiocide H-640 as a supplement to an ongoing oxidizing microbiocide program. This unique product resulted in lower overall dosages of microbiocide with more effectiveness and longer lasting results.
Control of Microbiological Fouling with Glutaraldehyde (TP-87-01) Robert G. Eagar, Jr., Ph.D. & Alan B. Theis, Ph.D., Union Carbide Corporation 1987
Abstract: Microorganisms that contaminate a variety of cooling water systems produce Biofilms. These microbiological deposits retard water flow, decrease heat transfer efficiency, and increase corrosion rates. Glutaraldehyde has shown efficacy against biofilms in a variety of cooling water systems. Field and laboratory examples are presented to provide an understanding of the factors that influence the microbiological efficacy of glutaraldehyde, as well as its ability to react with and remove attached biofilms.
A Novel Polymeric Material For Use in Minimizing Calcium Phosphate Fouling in Industrial Cooling Water Systems (TP-87-07) Robert W. Zuhl, Zahid Amjad & William F. Masler, III, The BF Goodrich Company 1987
Abstract: Environmental concerns and government regulations facing the cooling water treatment (CWT) industry have spurred a trend away from chromate-based programs. Polymers are used as components of phosphate-based CWT programs 1) to maintain adequate phosphate concentrations in solution to inhibit corrosion and 2) to prevent fouling. Industry trends and the use of polymers in phosphate-based CWT programs are reviewed. The performance properties of several calcium phosphate inhibitors have been examined and compared with those of new polymeric material.
Biological Organic Fouling and Its Effect on Corrosion of AISI 304 Stainless Steel (TP-86-14) Amadew J.N. Silva, Renato A. Silva, Jose O. Silva & James N. Tanis, Aquatec Quimica, S.A. 1986
Abstract: The significant increase in heat load in cooling water systems in distilleries, as a result of the development of the Pro-Alcohol Program in Brazil, has necessitated the use of cooling towers over the traditional once-through systems. The problems associated with using cooling towers in distilleries are unique because of the temperatures involved, the materials of construction (stainless steel) and the concentration potential for any and all types of organic contamination, both from process and makeup water sources. Special fieldwork and lab research has shown interesting relationships between the level of organic fouling and the degree of concentrate pitting type corrosion on stainless steel surface.
Guidelines for Selection and Use of On-line Fouling Monitors (TP-85-02) William E. Moore & George F. Hays, CTI Water Treatment Committee 1985
Abstract: Many types of monitors are used in cooling systems to determine fouling rates. Each type has advantages and disadvantages. This is a review of the types of monitors commercially available. Basic heat transfer theory and various calculations used to determine fouling rates are reviewed. Also discussed are uses and benefits, and guidelines for choosing a fouling monitor.
The Effects of Oil Contamination and Suspended Solids on Fouling and Corrosion Rates in Open Recirculating Cooling Water Systems (TP-85-14) Joseph S. Roti & Amato Spagnoletti, Drew Industrial Div. 1985
Abstract: Oil contamination represents a major problem to many large industrial cooling water systems. Oil can act as a nutrient for biological fouling, causes more voluminous deposits by agglomerating suspended solids and can interfere with film formation of corrosion inhibitors, thereby increasing corrosion rates. Hydrocarbon dumps in oil refineries, lubricating oils in steel mills and other oil-based process leaks all contribute to the above-mentioned problems.
Tube Material, Fluid Velocity, Surface Temperature and Fouling a Field Study (TP-84-16) N. Zelver, J.A. Robinson & F.L. Roe, CCE, Inc., W.G. Characklis, Montana State Univ., & Z. Dicic, K. Chapple & A. Ribaudo, Power Auth. of 1984
Abstract: A fouling monitor was operated under different environmental conditions to minimize fouling. Three tubes were made of AL-6X stainless steel and one of 90-10 copper-nickel. Operating conditions included different flow rates (1.0 and 1.7 fps) and periodic surges in flow to scour the fouling deposit. Results showed: 10 flow surges were partially effective, 2) copper-nickel fouled slower but was more difficult to clean, and 3) fouling was greater at 1.0 fps.
Biofouling Control in Recycled Cooling Water With Bromo Chloro Dimethlhydantoin (TP-250A) J.V. Matson, Univ. of Houston & W.G. Characklis, Montana State University 1982
Abstract: Recycled cooling water can contain very high levels of organics, creating a potentially significant Biofouling problem on heat transfer surface. A system in which all treated process waters were added to the cooling water system, and the cooling water was recycled through a sidestream softener was studied. A variety of Biofouling monitoring systems were evaluated; as were control chemicals.
Use of a Fouling/Corrosion Monitor to Optimize an Organic Cooling Water Treatment Program (TP-246A) P. Thomas, G. Hays & R. Yawn, Drew Chemical Corporation 1982
Abstract: This paper details a method used to streamline and optimize an organic corrosion inhibitor program at a southwest gas processing plant. It involves the use of data generated by a portable fouling, corrosion monitor that is capable of simulating a plant's critical heat exchangers. Both velocity and surface temperature are duplicated in order to provide an identical environment for fouling and corrosion that is occurring in the plants equipment.
Use of a New Fouling Monitor in Development and Application of Cooling Water Treatments (TP-238A) Bruce L. Libutti, Drew Chemical Corp., & Rex V. Rhoades, Rohrback Corporation 1981
Abstract: A new fouling monitor has been developed which compares the heat transfer resistance of fouled and clean surfaces in the same water. Comparisons between laboratory and field data are discussed.
Discriminating Between Biofouling and Scaling in a Deposition Monitor (TP-239A) Nicholas Zelver, W.R. Characklis & Frank L. Roe, Montana State University 1981
Abstract: Simultaneous measurements of fluid frictional resistance and heat transfer resistance can be used to distinguish between Biofouling and scaling. Theoretical calculations and experimental data indicate the strength and limitations of this method.
Determination of Seasonal Variations in Fouling Factors and Apparent Slime Thickness (TP-237A) R.J. Ferguson, Apollo Technologies, Inc. 1981
Abstract: Description of the fouling factor changes observed during winter and summer chlorination outages and are compared to fouling factors measured during a pilot-scale deposition study.
Fundamental Considerations in Biofouling Control (TP-221A) W.G. Characklis, M.G. Trulear & N. Stathopoulos, Montana State University 1980
Abstract: The term fouling refers to the formationof inorganic and /or organic deposits on surfaces. In cooling systems, these deposits form on condenser tube walls increasing fluid frictional resistance, accelerating corrosion and impairing heat transfer. Biological fouling, or Biofouling, results from the attachment and growth of microbial organisms (microfouling) or microbial organisms (macrofouling). This paper is directed at microbial fouling.
Silica Deposit - Status Report (TP-169A) William S. Midkiff & H. Pressley Foyt, Los Alamos Scientific Lab. 1977
Organic/Inorganic Polymers - A New Treatment For Cooling Water System (TP-91A) Paul R. Puckorius, W.E. Zimmie Inc. 1971
Cooling Water Anti-Foulants, Theory and Application (TP-59A) Ronald D. Lees & J. Larry Twifold, Hercules, Inc. 1969
Waterside Fouling and Scaling of Heat Exchange Equipment (TP-8A) B.J. Kelly & Paul R. Puckorius Nalco Chemical Company 1963

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