CTI Bibliography of Technical Papers - Legionnaires' Disease

Revised 2009

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Legionnaires' Disease
Order NumberTitleAuthorDate
Chemical Free Bacteria & Legionella Control: A Case Study Using Hydrodynamic Cavitation Phil Vella, Ph.D., VRTX Technologies 2009
Abstract: This paper describes an alternative, patented, non-chemical cooling water treatment system that has proven to be effective in controlling/eradicating bacteria and Legionella. The technology works primarily on the principals of Controlled Hydrodynamic Cavitation (CHC). The VRTX system eradicates bacteria by a combination of four synergistic actions: pressure, vacuum, kinetic impact and sheer force at the collision point. Within the chamber the following are generated: hydrodynamic cavitation, sonic waves and oxidizing chemicals (hydroxyl radicals). In this paper, field test results will be presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of VRTX system in controlling bacteria and Legionella in cooling water systems. Testing was conducted at a cooling tower of a Spanish hospital. Comparisons were made between their current chemical treatment, combined chemical (one half the normal dose) along with VRTX and VRTX treatment alone. The results indicated a significant improvement of the partial checmical/VRTX treatment over chemicals only. Data on water savings, improved heat transfer, effects on calcium removal, and cost advantages will also be presented.
A New Method to Measure Viable Legionella and Total Heterotrophic Aerobic Bacteria William F. McCoy, Phigenics LLC 2008
Abstract: A new field method for enumerating viable Legionella and total heterotrophic aerobic bacteria was evaluated in hundreds of laboratory experiments and from analysis of over two thousand field samplers used in actual operating conditions. The method has been proven reliable for determining viable cell concentrations of Legionella pneumophila, Legionella species and total heterotrophic aerobic bacteria. In comparison to standard methods, the new protocol has been shown to be more accurate, faster and more convenient. Comparisons to other rapid methods are presented. Guidance is given for use of the new method within the context of hazard analysis and control to prevent legionellosis.
The Control of Bacteria on Surfaces: Effectiveness of Bromine-Based Biocides Towards Microbial Biofilms and Biofilm-Associated Legionella Pneumophila. Chris Nalepa, Eric Liimatta and Johnthan Howarth, Albemarle Corporation; H. Ceri and C.A. Stremick, The Biofilm Research Group and Janet Stout and Y. 2002
Abstract: Proper cooling system operation depends on maintaining clean system surfaces for optimum heat transfer and system longevity. Biofilms or microbiological growth on surfaces can negatively impact the operation of cooling systems in many ways by impeding efficient heat transfer in heat exchangers, by clogging film fill surfaces, and by creating an environment for destructive and pathological organisms such as sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRBs) and Legionella pneumophila. For the past several years, we have studied the effectiveness of bromine-based biocides for control of biofilm bacteria in general and for control of problem organisms like Legionella pheumophila and SRBs in particular. This work indicates subtle differences in the activity of various bromine-biocides and provides guidance for the development of effective microbiological treatment strategies for industrial cooling systems.
Microbicidal Efficacy of BNPD Against Legionella Pheumophila (TP-87-18) Michael Coghlin & Gary Caplan Bird Archer, Inc. 1987
Abstract: The veracity of in vitro biocide evaluations reviewed in the context of Legionella Pneumophila field study disinfections. In particular, a new nonoxidizing biocide is presented which appears to be uniquely effective in controlling populations of L.P. Efficacy of biocidal disinfections is discussed in terms of biomass penetration and mode of cellular destruction.
Concentration, Serotypic, Profiles and Infectivity of Legionnaires' Disease Bacteria Populations in Cooling Towers (TP-249A) R.L. Tyndall, Zoology Dept., University of Tennessee 1982
Abstract: The concentration and serotypic profiles of Legionnaires' Disease Bacteria (LDB) in water of industrial cooling towers from various areas of the continental United States was determined. The characteristics of the LDB populations were compared to the biocide treatment and type of tower fill. Effects of cleaning and altered biocide treatment on LDB populations were assessed. The ubiquity of the LDB in both ambient control and cooling tower water was demonstrated.


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