CTI Bibliography of Technical Papers - Materials

Revised 2017

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Order NumberTitleAuthorDate
Non-Destructive Evaluation of Structural Elements of Cooling Towers Narendra Gosain, Ph.D., Ray Drexler and Mark Williams, Ph.D., Walter P Moore And Associates 2017
Abstract: Wood, steel, and concrete have been used as structural materials in cooling towers for decades. When evaluations needed to be done to understand the structural integrity of the materials used after years of service of the towers, specialized procedures were developed to characterize the condition of different materials. These ranged from visual to in situ tests using various techniques for different materials. This paper describes some of the non-destructive testing techniques used for structural elements in cooling towers with some case histories.
New Cooling Tower Nozzle - Low Flow Dr. Andreas Streng, CTS Cooling Tower Solutions GmbH 2015
Abstract: This paper is based on a previous one from 2010 where a new full cone cooling tower nozzle of a much better distribution quality was described. An additional spray nozzle will be presented here to extend the working range of full cone nozzles. The main target of these R&D efforts was and is the improvement of the evenness of water distribution in cooling towers and consequentially the overall cooling performance. The paper discusses the development and the results.
Composite Materials Selection for Structures in Seismac Regions Andrew Green with Andrew Beyle, Lamar University, college of Engineering 2014
Abstract: Many of the effects of earthquake loads are proportional to the total mass of the structure. Composites having the specific strength (1…3)*10-6m2/s2, a decimal order higher than conventional materials, are ideal candidates from this point of view. The specific stiffness (20…300)* 10-6m2/s2 of composites is much higher than conventional materials and as a result, their vibrational performance is better. Finally, energy absorption and energy dissipation is the key characteristic of any structure in dynamic loading. Composite structures absorb and dissipate more energy per unit of mass than conventional materials. This paper provides analysis and data that demonstrates the magnitude and advantage of composites over conventional materials.
Structural Modification of a Power Plant’s River Water Intake to Minimize Ice Blockage Frank Michell, American Electric Power; Marcela Politano & Yushi Wang, IIHR-Hydroscience & Engineering, University of Iowa; Jeff Stallings, Electric 2014
Abstract: A numerical study was conducted to evaluate design alternatives to alleviate ice accumulation at the river intake. A numerical model to predict the ice transport and accumulation at the river intake was developed and validated. The model was used to understand the main phenomenon leading to ice transport and accumulation. This paper will describe the use of the model to analyze the effectiveness of mitigation measures. A mitigation plan consisting of intake modifications to be implemented during several phases is presented. In the first phase, large pipe openings are cut in the walls separating intake pump wells of previously retired units at the facility. In the second phase, a number of sediment control vanes previously placed in front of the intake will be removed to facilitate downstream ice transport. A third phase, if needed to be implemented, involves removing additional sedimentation control vanes and cutting holes in the pump wells on the operating units.
Fiberglass Reinforced Polyester in Cooling Towers – Structural Application Ken Mortensen and Robert W. Petterson, SPX Cooling Technologies 2013
Abstract: FRP material has been used for Cooling Tower Structure for over 20 years. Its properties are quite suitable for the wet cooling environment. This paper explores the history of use, properties testing supporting use, problem areas, and concludes with an overall evaluation of effectiveness.
AEP's Experience With Polyester FRP Structure Cooling Towers Bob Cashner, American Electric Power 2011
Abstract: The first polyester fiberglass structure cooling towers were placed in operation on the AEP system during the period of 2008 to 2010. One of these towers is a counter-flow design while the other four towers are cross-flow designs. Surface blisters were found on 15% to 20% of the columns in two towers after 18 months of service. A majority of the fiberglass bearing pads have failed in 3 towers which caused the bottom of many of the pipe columns to vertically split and fail. Information will be presented on the above issues, field repairs and lessons learned.
Simultaneous Removal of Waterborne Bacteria and Total Suspended Solids Using an Antimicrobial Media in a Crossflow Filter System James W. Stephens, Sonitec, Inc.; Mark B. Miller, A.S. Filtration, LLC 2010
Abstract: This paper describes the results of laboratory challenges supported by a series of field demonstrations where an innovative filtration technology is applied for the simultaneous removal and suppression of waterborne bacteria and total suspended solids (TSS).
New Cooling Tower Nozzle Features and Performance Andreas Streng, Ph.D., CTS Cooling Tower Solutions GmbH 2010
Abstract: Spray nozzles are key elements of evaporative cooling towers, but are often neglected. Many different nozzle types have been developed and are used in cooling towers worldwide. The spray patterns of eight different nozzles from the international cooling tower market were investigated inside a hall with the result that there are no nozzles available which provide an even water distribution as it is achieved in other industries. But uneven distribution leads to reduced cooling performance. Therefore, a new spary nozzle for cooling tower applications was developed in co-operation with leading spray nozzle experts over the last three years. Design details and distribution patterns will be presented.
An Investigation of Pin Bearing Strength on Composite Materials Dustin L. Troutman and Jeremy D. Mostoller, Creative Pultrusions, Inc. 2010
Abstract: This paper aims to demonstrate a correlation between coupon level pin bearing tests and in situ laboratory testing of FRP joints commonly utilized in cooling towers and other structures designed and built with pultruded FRP structural members. The investigation includes 4% hole elongation bearing strength as compared to ultimate bolt bearing with various bolt sizes and hole tolerances, as well as, the effects of threads acting on the bearing surface.
The Impact of Veil Thickness and Coating on Cooling Tower FRP Composites Clint Smith, Strongwell, Inc. 2005
Abstract: FRP Cooling Tower customers typically request thick synthetic surfacing veils and coated end cuts for their applications. The purpose of this experiment was to obtain an estimate of the property enhancement for these two FRP production operations which add to product cost. Strongwell has tested the impact of veil thickness on twelve inch columns exposed to room temperature water and on the compressive strength in retention after 1,000 hours of weathering. The veil thickness ranged from no veil to 13mils and revealed no advantage for increasing the veil thickness. Strongwell also performed another environmental study on the impact of coating for the bearing and compressive properties. The water exposure was at room temperature and 125°F revealing no performance advantage obtained from the coating.
Internal Pipe Seals for Repair of Cooling Water Piping John A. Charest, Universal Utility Services 2003
Abstract: Internal sealing of raw water piping to arrest corrosion has been utilized in municipal applications for over twenty-five years. This process consists of an EPDM rubber seal that is positioned over the affected area and is locked in place with two hydraulically expanded stainless steel retaining bands, located at each end of the seal. In cooling water-piping systems, numerous leaks often suggest that large sections of pipe may need to be replaced, although in many cases the deterioration is limited to the pipe joints. Preferential attack at welded joints is a common problem and deteriorated conditions can also be found at flanged and bell and spigot connections. Typically, repairs range from complete replacement of the affected area to welded patches and belly bands. This relatively simple method to repair and isolate deteriorated areas can be completed in piping diameters ranging from 16 inches to 18 feet. As many as 100 smaller diameter seals can be installed, inspected and tested during a 48-hour time period.
Cooling Towers, Evaporative Condensers, and ASHRAE Guideline 12-2000 David F. Geary, Baltimore Aircoil Company 2001
Abstract: ASHRAE recently published a guideline, 'Minimizing the Risk of Legionellosis Associated with Building Water Systems'. Guideline 12 presents guidance covering a multitude of systems including cooling towers and evaporative condensers. The guideline presents a description of each system as well as an overview of the system operation including operating temperature, water droplet sizes, and nutrient availability. Recommended treatment practices are presented. The guideline emphasizes the importance of good housekeeping, biological treatment, and where possible control of the temperature level as principal control strategies. Guideline 12 is available from ASHRAE.
Safe Erection Procedure for Fiberglass Cooling Towers Jacob Moneta, Brian O'Leary, Hamon Cooling Towers 2001
Abstract: In many of the locations where mechanical draft cooling towers are constructed, high winds canbe a serious safety consideration, especially with partially built structures. This paper willfocus upon the erection procedure for fiberglass mechanical draft cooling towers. However, much of the procedure has application for wood towers as well.
Diagonal Bracing Connections in Fiberglass Cooling Towers Jamie Bland, Ceramic Cooling Tower Company 1999
Abstract: This paper investigates typical connections of diagonal braces in fiberglass cooling towers. These connections are typically accomplished using mechanical fasteners and/or structural adhesives. Different combinations of mechanical fasteners and/or adhesive joints will be presented with a comparative study showing full-scale test results.
Implementing Regulations Under The Fastener Quality Act (FQA) Rodrick WIlliams, All-Pro Fastener, Inc. 1998
Abstract: This paper covers the ins and out's of the new public law that covers graded product used by OEM companies as well as what it means to the cooling tower industry.
Strength-Degredation Based Life Expectancy of Wood Cooling Towers Jozsef Bodig, Arun K. Pandey, Engineering Data Mgmt., Inc. Jeff Hofacre, American Electric Power Serv. Corp., Mark Holmberg Northern States Power Co., 1996
Abstract: Life expectancy predictions of wood cooling towers are accomplished with the aid of nondestructive and/or destructive testing of representative samples of structural members and their connections. Based on the test information on the current condition and the original design stresses, rates of strength degradations are computed for critical components. The degradation rates, combined with structural analysis, are used to project a life expectancy of the tower at a given level of probability. Examples of evaluations of current conditions and life expectancy projections are provided for cooling towers owned by Appalachian Power Co., Northern States Power Co. and Potomac Electric Power Co.
Development of FRP Structural Frame For Industrial Cooling Tower Kanji Kato & Kesaaki Mochizuki Ishikawajima Plant Eng. & Const. Co., LTD., Akira Hamamoto, Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Ind. Co., LTD., Hideto Ya 1994
Abstract: Three companies have cooperatively developed a structural frame system for industrial cooling towers using pultruded FRP (Fiber Reinforced Plastics) profiles as a substitute for lumber to improve the durability. The mechanical, weather proof and endurance properties in water environment of pultruded materials, and the buckling and joint strength of pultruded tubes were evaluated. A full-scale model of the structural frame was constructed and tested under static and dynamic loads. Design and construction methods for a reliable structural frame system with pultruded FRP profiles have been established. The first industrial cooling tower with a FRP structural frame has operated satisfactorily for more than four years. The number of industrial cooling tower with FRP structural frame is increasing every year.
Design Consideration For the Installation of RTRP Piping for Cooling Tower Hot Water Distribution Systems (TP-87-03) Michael F. Luckenbill, Fibercast Company 1987
Abstract: Special considerations must be addressed in regard to thermal expansion and contract when fiberglass pipe is anchored, supported, guided or allowed to float free on a cooling tower. Attention to these considerations will minimize the forces which the cooling tower must withstand.
The Selection and Testing of Plastics Tower Fill (TP-86-05) Steven C. Blue, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. 1986
Abstract: A field and laboratory testing program was conducted to measure the temperature off installed tower fill and identify a cost effective fill to refurbish existing towers. The creep rate of PVC fill was determined as a function of temperature, load and sheet thickness.
Pultruded Fiberglass Reinforced Polyester: The Material of Choice For Cooling Towers (TP-85-17) Roger A. Anderson, Enduro Fiberglass Systems 1985
Abstract: The pultrusion process and resulting high strength fiberglass reinforced polyester (FRP) laminate has many answers for cooling tower engineers. A review of the process, physical properties and successful applications reveals the importance of this material in the cooling tower industry. The process improvements and process control procedures developed during the 70's and 80's enable pultruded FRP to compete with higher priced woods and treated steels for many future applications
A New Type of Closed Circuit Cooling Tower With Plastic Heat Exchangers (TP-261A) G. Hery, Hamon (France), J. Bauthier, Hamon-Sobelco (Belgium), William M. Wurtz, Hmon-Sobelco International 1983
Abstract: This paper discusses the advantages of an evaporative cooling tower that operates wet-dry or dry. To our knowledge this design is the only commercial cooling tower that uses thermoplastic tubes for the heat transfer.
Structural Evaluation of Profiled Fiberglass Reinforced Polyester Panels For Cooling Towers (TP-255A) Joseph F. Panikulam, H.H. Robertson Company 1982
Abstract: Profiled fiberglass reinforced polyester panels (FRP) are gaining acceptance in the cooling tower market. They are attractive, durable, lightweight, easily applied and competitively priced. Cooling towers should be carefully engineered and built, as they represent considerable investment. Profiled FRP panels form an integral part of the cooling tower infrastructure. They deserve careful testing evaluation before being applied to the structure.
Controlling The Deterioration of Asbestos Cement Cooling Tower Fill (TP-258A) Winston Chow, Electric Power Research Inst., Richard W. Stone Brown and Caldwell Consulting Engr. 1982
Abstract: Many large cooling towers have been constructed over the past twenty years with asbestos-cement fill. A total of forty-eight power plants were surveyed as a part of this investigation. Approximately, one-third of those surveyed use asbestos cement for fill or for other components (i.e., louvers, walls, etc.) of the cooling tower. At roughly half of these installations, the cooling water has caused noticeable deterioration of the fill, in two known cases, the deterioration degradation of the asbestos-cement fill is suspected to be leaching of the cement from the fill. Release of these asbestos fibers into the environment through either cooling tower blowdown or as an aerosol (i.e., draft) from the tower may result in adverse regulatory and/or health impact. This paper summarizes the survey, describes the extent and severity of the problem, discusses the causes, and suggests corrective action. The paper is based upon a research project funded by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI).
Electric Brake For Cooling Tower Motors (TP-217A) Elmer E. Rabek, Reliance Electric Company 1980
Abstract: By using an electrical braking technique, it is possible to prevent windmilling and provide secondary benefits that reduce installation and maintenance costs.
Low Cost New Material For Construction of Water Cooling Towers (TP-180A) R.W. Billings, Reichhold Chemicals, Dennis P. Miller, Dow Chemical 1978
Use and Availability of Redwood Lumber in Cooling Towers (TP-154A) Peter Johnson, Jr., California Redwood Association 1976
Plastic Piping Systems in Cooling Tower Design (TP-104A) David A. Chasis, Plastics Piping Systems, Inc. 1972
Application of AC Motors to Cooling Towers (TP-63A) J.A. Ciesar, Westinghouse Electric Corporation 1969
A Look at Wood Plastic Composites With Implication For Cooling Tower Applications (TP-64A) Duane L. Kenaga, Dow Chemical Company 1969
Fiberglass Reinforced Plastics and Cooling Towers (TP-34A) Richard W. Billings, Reinforced Plastics Division 1967
Fire Retardant Fiberglass Reinforced Polester as a Material of Construction for Cooling Towers (TP-19A) Paul R. Carey & Walter A. Szymanski, Durez Plastics Division Hooker Chemical Corp. 1966
Plastic Trends in Cooling Tower Design (TP-5A) A.L. Fuller, Fluor Products Co. 1962

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