CTI Bibliography of Technical Papers - Mechanical Draft Towers

Revised 2015

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Mechanical Draft Towers
Order NumberTitleAuthorDate
Outside/Inside Approach to Evaluating Concrete Elements in Mechanical Draft Cooling Towers Thomas Kline, Structural Group, Inc. 2015
Abstract: The Paper will address an innovative technique for assessing the condition of reinforced concrete elements in Mechanical Draft Cooling Towers while on-line and off-line. These assessments assist Asset Owners with the preparation of Repair Budgets and in making enlightened decisions for these critical assets which are typically the last piece of equipment taken down before an outage and the first piece of equipment brought up after an outage. Case Examples will be presented as well as implemented repair programs focused on this approach.
Cooling Tower Basin Evaluation and Repair Tom Kline, Structural Preservation Systems 2009
Abstract: Mechanical draft cooling towers are critical fixed assets that need to be maintained and remain in service in order to cool various plant operations and systems. Essentially, the cooling tower basin in mechanical draft technology serves a two-fold purpose, one as containment for the cooling water and two as the foundation for supporting overlaying "fill" structures. Almost all of these basin structures are constructed of conventionally reinforced concrete, either partially or totally placed below grade. Their service environment subjects them to various aggressive deterioration mechanisms including embedded metal corrosion, original construction defects, environmental degradation (i.e. freeze-thaw, algae growth, etc.) as well as chemical attack resulting in erosion and structural section loss. Since these structures contain process water and function as support foundations, the existing condition of these structures should be evaluated regularly and repairs performed should conditions warrant, on a timely basis. Evaluation techniques exist, both non-destructive (NDT) and semi-destructive (SDT), which can serve as tools in assessing in-site conditions, either on or offline. Additionally, the paper will highlight case histories of cooling tower basin evaluations and subsequent repair program implementation.
Feasibility of Seawater Cooling Towers for Large-Scale Petrochemical Development Dr. Shahriar Eftekharzadeh and Dr. Muin M. Baasiri, Bechtel Corporation and Paul A. Lindahl, Jr., Marley Cooling Technologies 2003
Abstract: The major feasibility issues concerning the applicability of Mechanical Draft Seawater Cooling Towers for large-scale petrochemical development in the hot-humid Arabian Peninsula (Gulf) region were investigated. Issues addressed were tower thermal performance, permissible hot and cold-water temperatures, scaling and bio-fouling, drift and impact on corrosion, environmental impacts, O&M concerns, and life-cycle costs. It was found that seawater cooling towers can satisfy the cooling needs of large-scale petrochemical development in the hot humid Gulf region, without significant problems. Cost of cooling was found to be less than the conventional once-through system normally used. Based on the findings of this study, plans are underway to double the size of one of the largest petrochemical complexes in the world, located in the region. The findings of this study constitute a major step forward for the cooling technologies industry.
Partial Collapse and Rebuild of the Conesville Unit 4 Mechanical Draft Cooling Tower Frank L. Michell & Walt Demjanenko, American Electric Power Service Corp. 1995
Abstract: ON January 31, 1993, the north side of the No. 4A mechanical draft-cooling tower serving Columbus Southern Power's Conesville Unit 4 collapsed; forcing the 800 MW coal fired generating unit out of service. The cause of catastrophic structural failure, tower reconstruction program and considerations for preventing similar failures in the future will be reviewed.

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