CTI Bibliography of Technical Papers - Miscellaneous

Revised 2016

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Order NumberTitleAuthorDate
Applying Ultrasound Prevents Scale Formation In Heat Exchanger K. Casey Youn Ph. D, Weeco International Corp.; Simon Kim, Morko American Inc. 2016
Abstract: Recent developments in equipment for ultrasound generators have greatly increased their available power and expanded their range of operating temperatures. This presents opportunities for scale prevention in heat exchangers by using ultrasound. Applications are refineries, sewage plants, alcohol plants, boilers have been very promising, and indicate that significant economic advantages can be realized.
Seismic Qualification - Fact And Fiction Robert Simmons, Petra Seismic Design 2011
Abstract: Chapter 17 of the International Building Code (1BC) requires manufacturers of designated equipment to provide a certificate of compliance verifying that the equipment will meet pertinent earthquake load criteria. The evidence of compliance must be by actual test on a shake table, by an analytical method using dynamic characteristics, by the use of experience data, or by more rigorous analysis providing for equivalent safety. In the wake of this requirement, equipment manufacturers have grasped for a concrete method to obtain such a certification. This paper will explain the facts and fiction regarding when seismic compliance is required, how to go about obtaining a seismic certification, who can provide certifications, and what role jurisdictions such as OSHPD play.
Traveling Water Screen Options - Innovations In The Industry Kristen Bridge, Superior Water Screen Company 2011
Abstract: In almost any water treatment application, screening debris and safely handling fish and aquatic life is very important especially in keeping power plants running. Over the past 50 years or so, many traveling water (intake) screens have stayed the same. In the meantime, innovative companies have been improving this 'standard' product and have engineered traveling water screens that have an extended life, require less maintenance, and promote safer fish handling. In this paper we will explore the innovations and introduce them to the market while keeping current topics in mind such as 316(b).
The Importance of an ISO 9001 Component Supplier for Cooling Tower Companies Clint Smith, Strongwell 2010
Abstract: The ISO 9001 quality system originated in 1987 and has evolved since its inception becoming the standard quality system for the world. The ISO 9001 quality system presents an outline/philosophical approach for formalizing the quality system function within the manufacturing organization that does not interfere with the normal business operation. An important feature of this quality system approach is the independent verification. A formalized and verifiable quality system can translate into an improved product for the Cooling Tower customers regardless of the product purchased. The ISO 9001 quality system can be paraphrased as: (1) Make what the customer wants, (2) Plan to improve
Experiment Investigation of an Evaporative Cooling Tower Kuo-Hsiang Chien, Energy & Resources Laboratoties Industrial Technology Research Institute 2000
Abstract: A new designed tube bundle heat exchanger using in an evaporative cooling tower was investigated. The tube bundle is constructed by staggered and crossover tubes to increase the contact surface area and the turbulence of airflow. In this cooling tower, the filler and tube bundle heat exchanger were combined and arranged in different layers. The primary side of cooling water was circulated in the tube bundle heat exchanger in a closed loop and the secondary side of cooling water was sprayed through the filler and outside of the tube bundle heat exchanger in an open loop.
Helper Cooling Towers at the Bang Pakong Power Station David J. Brill, David Copeland, Thomas E. Kalin, Black & Veatch, Worawit Khamkanist, Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand 1996
Abstract: The Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) has taken the extraordinary action of retrofitting the Bang Pakong Power Station with one of the world's largest cooling tower installations. The cooling towers are installed as helper cooling towers, with the purpose of reducing the temperature of the circulating water discharged from the power station into the Bang Pakong River. This project represents a progressive and proactive approach to current and future environmental impacts associated with the thermal circulating water system discharge at the power station.
Estimating Operational Service Time of Heat Exchangers (TP-90-05) J. Fred Wilkes, Consultant Flavio Bianchi & Mauro C. Ramirez, Aquatec Quimica, S.A. 1990
Abstract: Predicting operational service time of heat exchangers between forced maintenance outages is a subject, which has been studied intensively for many years. Numerous technical and economic advantages would occur if such predictive data were available, to permit appropriate preventive actions to control potential fouling problems developing on either the cooling water side or the process fluid side. The calculation methodology developed by Kern and other researchers can be applied to determine when critical fouling values will be reached, once the fouling factors for specific unit have been determined. However, such methodology is limited by its ability to express only total fouling, which may be understood as the sum of fouling on exchanger process side, plus that on the waterside. This does not provide for in-service isolation and measurement of fouling factors on both sides of exchangers, nor permit necessary corrective actions, when possible, in the more critical area. Deducting these values from those verified in the plant for the total fouling, fouling which occurs on the process side is determined more precisely. This defines the intensity of the fouling problem on each interface where thermic exchange takes place.
Design, Operation and Water Treatment of a Wet Finned Tube Exchanger Cooling Tower (TP-89-15) Christopher H. Norton & Ken W. Rowland, Southern California Gas Company 1989
Abstract: Due to high maintenances costs, the Southern California Gas Company replaced existing open cooling towers with "wet" Fin-Fan coolers. The "wet" Fin-Fan is similar to a standard Fin-Fan, but enclosed with "walls" which act as an evaporative air precooler. The "walls" which act as an evaporative air precooler. The "walls" are made from fiberglass evaporative fill material, over which water is circulated. Three such towers were constructed between 1982 and 1986. This presentation details the basic design, operation and water treatment of the "wet" Fin-Fan cooling towers. Special attention is focused on the evolution of the water treatment programs.
A Case History of a Coal Gasification Wastewater Cooling Tower at the Great Plains Coal Gasification Project (TP-87-02) Benjamin R. Crocker, Environmental Systems Corp., Mary C. Bromel & Michael W. Pontbriand, ANG Coal Gasification Company 1987
Abstract: Actual operating experience on and design modifications to a zero discharge process-cooling tower wherein the waste waters provided the make-up. Design philosophy of the modification effort and resulting impact on thermal performance recounted. Additionally, the paper provides recommended design concepts for future reuse cooling towers where biological or hydrocarbon fouling risks are anticipated.
Reuse of Pretreated Coal Gasification Condensate in a Pilot Scale Cooling Tower (TP-87-11) Michael D. Johnson, Univ. of ND Energy Research Ctr & Gerald W. Schweitzer, Calgon Corporation 1987
Abstract: The recycle and reuse of waste and process water streams can turn potential environmental problem discharge streams into beneficial cooling tower make-up streams. Three separate 50 days research studies using ammonia and phenol stripped coal gasification condensate from the Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant were performed. The first phase of testing did not use pretreatment for this highly contaminated wastewater. Baseline data indicated severe biological fouling, scaling and corrosion. The second phase, using non-oxidizing biocides and dispersants, was unsuccessful at reducing these problems. The make-up for the third and final phase consisted of biologically treated and filtered water with a dispersant and a phosphorus-based corrosion inhibitor. The pretreatment and corrosion control program used gave excellent results for biological fouling, corrosion and deposition control.
A New Answer to the Water Treating "Gadget" Problem (TP-265A) J.C. Dromgoole, Maintenance Engineering Corp., M.C. Forbes, Alkem, Inc. 1983
Abstract: The flood of spurious water treating "gadgets" is continuing. There has been some effort by various official State and Federal agencies to help the consumer but their record is spotty. Now is the time for the water treatment user and legitimate vendors to band together in a national organization to promote those technologies that are sound and to reduce the impact of those men and companies that cost the uninitiated large sums and give the industry a bad name.
"Tower Units" Calculation for Concentrated Sea Water (TP-273A) M. Schaal & G. Meron, Israel Electric Corporation 1983
Abstract: Psychrometrics chart and rating factors used in Tower Units calculation are modified for cases when concentrated seawater is used. This is done using known data in seawater and methods developed by CTI.
The Successful History of Spray Canal Cooling (TP-206A) Richard L. Brown & Dwight Furr, Ceramic Cooling Tower Co. 1979
Examination of the Sensitivity of Spray Cooling to Wind Speed and Direction (TP-185A) Karl R. Wilber, Environmental Systems Corporation 1978
Cooling Tower Salinity Optimization via Sidestream Desalination (TP-168A) Gerald T. Westbrook, Dow Chemical U.S.A. 1977
Sea Water as an Industrial Coolant (TP-31A) W.B. Brooks, The Dow Chemical Company 1967
On The Design of a Cooling Tower For Educational Purposes (TP-33A) Juan J. DeLeon, & David P. Malatesta, Undergraduate Students, Ozer A. Arnas, Assoc. Prof., Louisiana State Univ. 1967
Cooling Tower Steam Sterilization From Year's Experience (TP-18D) T.A. McConomy, Hall Laboratories Division 1965
A Comparison Between European and U.S. Cooling Towers (TRP-123) John W. Hubenthal, Ceramic Cooling Tower Company 1962

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