CTI Bibliography of Technical Papers - Natural Draft Towers

Revised 2016

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Natural Draft Towers
Order NumberTitleAuthorDate
CDF Modeling Of Wind And Velocity & Direction On Exit Air In Performance Of IDCT Ram Kumar Jha, Performance Analyst Pvt. Ltd; Suresh Sarma, SS Cooling Tower Consultant, India 2016
Abstract: The induced draft wet cooling tower performance is highly affected due to recirculation of saturated exit air from the cooling tower. The impact of wind velocity and wind direction further degrades the predicted performance of cooling tower. This paper covers the volumetric multi fluid analyses using CFD modeling modeling in 18 back to back cells of 14 meter x 14 meter cooling tower in three different possible orientation like parallel, perpendicular and 45 degree inclined to the privilege wind direction. The quantative analysis estimate the amount of recirculation and extent of recirculation around the cooling tower and qualitative analysis identity the flow of recirculation and flow behavior for different wind direction. Prediction of recirculation allowances is generally provided by CTI (Cooling Technology Institute, USA) such as PTG-116 & PTB-110 codes.
Evaluation of the Effect of Damages of Drift Eliminators on Their Efficiency Helene Troncin, EDF 2013
Abstract: To improve the planning of maintenance of the drift eliminators of its counter flow natural draft cooling towers, EDF decided to run two campaigns of tests: the first one focused on the effect of the mechanical deterioration of drift eliminators. Because of fouling issues due to the use of untreated raw water as make up, the second test was applied on eliminators with a layer of about 1.5 millimeter of fouling. For both tests, the CTI ATC-140 was used with its former recommendations for analyzing the samples: drift measurement using conductivity methodology.
Experimental Characterization of Wind Effect on Natural Draft Cooling Towers Christophe Duquennoy, EDF 2013
Abstract: Wind curves provided by manufacturers to describe the impact of wind on cold water temperature of EDF’s natural draft cooling towers remain theoretical and probably include margins. Thus, it is of EDF interest to characterize the real effect of wind on its cooling towers. The paper will shortly describe EDF’s performance e-monitoring tool and explain how it can be used to build experimental wind curves. Then, examples will illustrate the way these curves can help to quantify different kind of wind effect5s like those due to the presence of obstacles close to the tower.
Natural Draft Cooling Tower Ring Replacement: Unique Construction Challenges and Solutions Gregory S. Mailen and Darin Baugher, EvapTech, Inc. Rory C. McCormick, PPL Generation 2012
Abstract: This paper presents the technical, logistical and scheduling challenges encountered to complete the project during a 49 day outage, which included preassembly of sixty-four (64), 15-ton pultruded structural fiberglass modules. More than 150 workers logged 94,000 man hours with zero safety incidents, (2) days ahead of schedule, allowing early plant restart and commissioning. The completed tower provides PPL additional generation capacity while distributing 261,000 gpm, is 45 feet high and 400 feet in diameter.
Breakthrough Cooling Tower Shell For FGD Discharge Piping Vladislav Grebik, REKO PRAH, A.s. 2011
Abstract: FGD (Flue gas desulfurization) discharge piping goes in the centre of natural draught cooling tower. For this huge pipe, diameter approx 10,0 m, big hole in the concrete shell is necessary. Technical treatment is different for existing cooling tower and a new building shell.
Structural Modeling and Analysis of Natural-Draft Cooling Towers Leandro Etcheverry and Prasad Samarajiva, Walter P. Moore 2009
Abstract: Advance finite element modeling and analysis can be useful to determine wind load capacity of natural-draft cooling towers. Because of the aggressive process and environmental exposure conditions, natural-draft cooling can sustain significant deterioration. This deterioration can be quantified and qualified by conducting a condition assessment. The findings from the assessment can be incorporated into the finite element model to determine wind load capacity not only of the as-designed structure but of the structure in its existing condition as well. The modeling and analysis is complex due to the geometry of the veil and the associated wind loads. As part of the analysis, wind loads are increased until the established failure criteria (stress or deflection) is reached. The results of the wind load analysis can be useful to plant owners in assessing the risks associated with the existing condition of the natural-draft cooling tower structure.
Upgrading and Repacking Two 460 MW Natural Draft Cooling Towers Peter Bosman, Knight Piesold Energy LLC, Dave Stables, Knight Piesold (PTY) LTD 1998
Abstract: This paper discusses the upgrading and repacking of two ND cooling towers at Hwange Power Station in Zimbabwe. The work involved replacing the badly blocked asbestos cement film pack with a high performance stainless steel splash/trickle pack while maintaining both towers in operation. The repack not only restored tower performance, recooled temperature was approximately 18°F worse than original design, but also improved recooled temperature by a further 3.6°F.
On-Line Performance Monitoring of the Natural Draft Cooling Tower at Cardinal Plant Frank L. Michell, Mathew J. Miller, American Electric Power 1998
Abstract: The paper will provide an over view of the online performance monitoring system recently installed on the 630 MW coal fired Unit 3 at Cardinal Plant in Brilliant, Ohio. Experience with using the on-line monitor to optimize performance of the major circulating water system components including the pumps, condensers and cooling tower will be evaluated and presented in the paper.
Oriented Spray-Assisted Cooling Tower Charles F. Bowman, Chuck Bowman Assc., Inc. Dudley J. Benton, Ph.D., Environmental Consulting Engineers, Inc. 1996
Abstract: Although the thermal performances of natural draft cooling towers occasionally fail to meet expectations, the options available to the designer to improve the performance of these cooling towers are limited. This paper presents the technical basis for a new Oriented Spray-assisted Cooling Tower design developed by the authors while employed by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). This design which may be back-fitted to existing natural draft cooling towers reduces the water loading and increases the air flow, resulting in a significant improvement in overall thermal performance. The paper will present the results of case studies conducted for existing TVA natural draft cooling towers and will show how the improvement in performance is achieved.
Thermal Performance Evaluation of The Natural Draft Cooling Tower (TP-83A) John C. Campbell, Ceramic Cooling Tower Company 1970
Natural Draft Cooling Towers (TP-38A) W.J. Jones, Hamon-Cottrell, Inc. 1968

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