CTI Bibliography of Technical Papers - Non Oxidizing Biocides

Revised 2017

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Non Oxidizing Biocides
Order NumberTitleAuthorDate
Biofouling Control in Industrial Water Systems Brian Corbin, The Dow Chemical Company 2017
Abstract: Failure to control biofouling in industrial water systems can lead to reduced system efficiency, microbiologically influenced corrosion, and increased downtime. Water treatment programs that include a combination of oxidizing and non-oxidizing biocides provide a broad-based approach to microbial control to minimize the negative impact of biofouling. In this paper, we will discuss the value of non-oxidizing biocides and industry best practices to control biofouling in cooling systems. The paper will discuss recent innovations in solid biocides and the numerous advantages over their liquid counterparts. Synergy between oxidizing and non-oxidizing biocides will also be discussed and treatment recommendations presented.
New Biocide Options for Biofouling Control Jeffrey Kramer, BWA Water Additives 2011
Abstract: There are a large number of biocides available to the water treatment professional however; they are not always effective due to compatibility and efficacy issues. A new non-oxidizing biocide based on tributyl tetradecyl phosphonium chloride has recently been introduced which overcomes many of the limitations of current non-oxidizing biocides. This new biocide out performs current biocides such as isothiazolone and glutaraldehyde versus algae and bacteria and is effective versus Legionella pneumophila. It is also synergistic with oxidizing biocides. The results are discussed and treatment recommendations are presented.
The Devil You Know Versus The Devil You Don't - An Evaluation of Chlorine Versus a Non-Oxidizing Biocide for Zebra Mussel Control Patrick H. Gill & Alan L. Smith Calgon Corporation 1995
Abstract: When evaluating options for control of impending infestation of Zebra mussels, all too often decisions are made solely based on using chemistry historically added for general biological control. Is this the right treatment? This paper reviews the option of a non-oxidizing biocide in direct comparison to chlorine in zebra mussel control applications.
Biocide Efficacy vs. Acid Producing and Iron Oxidizing Bacteria (TP-92-13) Lawrence A. Grab, Union Carbide Chemical and Plastics, Leonard A. Rossmoore, Biosan Laboratories, Inc. 1992
Abstract: Procedures have been developed for the successful evaluation of four water treatment biocides versus the acid-producing bacteria Thiobacillus novellas and the iron oxidizing bacteria Leptotrhix discophoro, Hyphomicrobium indicium and Sphaerotilis natans. The evaluations were conducted at pH 7.0 and ambient temperature. Each biocide was tested at concentrations that represent recommended treatment dosages for industrial water systems. The Biocidal efficacy was evaluated after a 1, 4, and 7-hour contact time with the organisms. All of the biocides proved to be highly effective against L. discophora, whereas efficacy against T. novellas, H. indicium and S. natans varied.
Tris (Hydroxymethyl) Nitromethane: An Evaluation of a Versatile Cooling Water Treatment Microbiocide (TP-90-06) Kenneth Soeder, Jamestown Chemical Co., Dr. Frederick J. Passman, Angus Chemical Co. 1990
Abstract: During the past decade, a compendium of new environmental regulations, health and safety concerns, performance objectives and economic consideration have curtailed the use of many microbiocides in cooling water treatment applications. In light of these developments, the primary objective of this paper will be to evaluate the use of Tris (Hydroxymenthyl) Nitromethane (TN), a product only recently introduced to the cooling water marketplace, as a versatile microbiocide suitable for use in many diverse treatment applications. In paper, both laboratory and field data will be presented demonstrating the product's broad-spectrum efficacy, especially in the high pH environments common to many of today's cooling water systems. In formation concerning additional product benefits, such as the fact that TN is non-foaming and non-odorous, will not react with other treatments or system contaminants, is environmentally and hygienically-sound and extremely cost-effective, will also be presented.
A New Bromine Oxidizing/Nonoxidizing Antimicrobial Combination Product for Industrial Water Treatment (TP-90-14) C.R. Ascolese, Betz Industrial 1990
Abstract: In certain water-cooling systems, continuous low-level application of oxidizing antimicrobials will not provide year-round control of algal biofilms in cooling towers. Therefore, these treatment s are often supplemented with periodic additions of non-oxidizing, antimicrobials, especially to control seasonal algal biofilms. This report describes a solid combination product that will deliver both oxidizing halogen (BCDMH: bromochlorodimethylhydantonin) and algicide (Simazine: 2-chloro 4, 6-bis (ethylamino) -s-triazine) simultaneously. Results are reported from several field trials in industrial cooling-water systems using the same feeding equipment as for Betz Slimicides C-77P (tableted BCDMH) and C-78P (granular BCDMH). The combination products are highly effective, easy to use, and safe. Results of the field trials establish efficacy of the treatment and define relevant application parameters. A guide for successful application is provided.
Evaluation of Industrial Biocides in Laboratory Model Cooling Towers (TP-86-17) W.F. McCoy & E.S. Lashen, Rohm & Haas Company 1986
Abstract: Cooling tower models were used to simulate industrial conditions and evaluate the efficacy of commercially available biocides against adherent (sessile) populations of microorganisms. The cooling tower parameters that were controlled included temperature, pH, cycles of concentration, blowdown rate, recirculation rate and lighting. The treatment programs were evaluated on the basis of viable cell counts, biochemical monitors, scanning electron microscopy and visual observations. Evaluations of biocide treatment programs are made by monitoring the microbial cells (algal, bacterial and funal) in the biofilms that develop on cooling tower slats. The treatments that were successful in maintaining biological control of biofilms in model cooling towers corresponded to commonly recommended programs used in industrial systems. Thus, the model cooling towers offer a relatively simple and meaningful method for evaluating cooling tower biocides in a realistic lab test.
Temperature and pH Hydrolysis of 2,2 Dibromo-3-Nitrilopropionamine (TP-262A) Amanda K. Meitz & Lawrence B. Magnusson, The Mogul Corp. 1983
Abstract: As National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) discharge requirements become increasingly more stringent a biocide that decomposes prior to discharge may become one of the few suitable methods for controlling microbes in cooling water systems. The pH and temperature dependent hydrolysis dibromonitriloproprionamide (DBNPA) was studied over a range of temperatures and pHs (7-8.5) expected for modern cooling water systems. A method for calculating time required for DBNPA decomposition using temperature and pH data for any cooling system is proposed.
Evolution of Non-Polluting Microbicides (TP-131A) Ronald A. Schultz, Wright Chemical Corp. 1974

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