CTI Bibliography of Technical Papers - Oxidizing Biocides

Revised 2012

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Oxidizing Biocides
Order NumberTitleAuthorDate
Novel, Mild Oxidant Improves Cooling Water Treatment Performance Relative to Traditional Oxidizers Chris Baron, Ashland Inc. 2012
Abstract: A low system oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) is desirable to minimize corrosion in recirculating cooling systems. Traditional oxidizers, however, are ineffective at system ORP less than 400 mV for neutral to alkaline pH values. This paper describes a novel, proprietary biocide that is marketed as Biosperse™ XD3899 microbiocide and made from the stoichiometric reaction of sodium hypochlorite and ammonium bromide. The resulting active, bromide-activated planktonic bacteria, including Legionella species, at significantly lower system ORP. Additional practical benefits observed in commercial applications include reduction/elimination of proprietary biocides and biodispersants, improved cooling tower cleanliness, lower corrosion rates, reduced corrosion inhibitor feeds, and water savings.
First Field trials of Single-Feed, Liquid Bromide Biocide for Cooling Towers Jon Howarth & Chris Nalepa, Albemarle Corporation 2000
Abstract: This paper describes the results obtained in the first field trials of a new single-feed, liquid bromine biocide. Several different water treatment service companies applied the product to a number of comfort cooling towers. The testing program embraced a variety of cooling tower designs and types of fill. Performance was measured in a diverse number of ways, and with varying degrees of sophistication, ranging from maintaining a pre-set ORP in the water, to enumerating microbiological colonies in the laboratory. The amount of product consumed in order to establish the desired performance criteria is revealed. After the trials, the Service Companies were interviewed, and canvassed for their opinions, and experiences with using this product. There were several common themes such as convenience and ease of use etc. there were also some unforeseen surprises, and these are discussed.
A Comparison of Bromine-Based Biocides in a Medium-Size Cooling Tower Christopher J. Nalepa, Robert M. Moore, Albemarle Corporation 1998
Abstract: The process loop cooling tower at the Albemarle Process Development Center in Baton Rouge, LA has historically used chlorine as the biocide together with industry accepted phosphorus-based corrosion/scale inhibitors. Although this treatment program provided acceptable biocontrol, corrosion rates were higher than desired. Over the past several years, we have studied the performance of bromine-based biocides in this cooling tower. This paper will compare the performance of these oxidizing biocides in terms of the effects on water chemistry, corrosion rate, microbiological control, and overall tower appearance. In general, these biocides provided an overall decrease in corrosion rates while maintaining good biocontrol.
Organic Halogen Stabilizers (TP-89-05) Zhihe Zhange & Jack V. Matson University of Houston 1989
Abstract: Reports on the disinfection's effectiveness in cooling water of some organic halogen stabilizers, such as 1Ô Bromo, 3-chloro, 5.5-dimethylhydantion (BCDMH) are quite contradictory and confusing. What is the truth about these compounds? This research investigated the disinfection's efficiency and mechanism of BCDMH in detail, and compared the results with a variety of inorganic disinfectants, in particular, a mixture of chlorine and bromide ions. Tests were conducted under different environmental conditions using several types of microorganisms. Various instruments and methods were used in investigating the mechanism how BCDMH worked as a biocide.
The Use of Chlorine Dioxide to Control Microbiological Growth in an Ethylene Glycol Contaminated Cooling Tower...A Case History (TP89-14) Raj Dhillon & Charles Edward, Hoechst Celanese 1989
Abstract: An alternative oxidizer, chlorine dioxide is used in a plastic film manufacturer's cooling water systems to control microorganisms. As a result of the process, the water is contaminated with percentage amounts of ethylene glycol and acid aldehyde. These serve as nutrients for unbridled microbial growth leading to sever operating problems in the condensers and cooling towers. A discussion of the resulting under deposit corrosion, as well s the successes, failures and limitations of various biocides are included in this documentation of an extremely challenging cooling water treatment applications.
Replacement of Chlorine Gas at a Major Gulf Coast Refinery With a New Oxidizing Biocide (TP-88-07) Samuel E. Shull & Douglas T. Murray, Lonza, Inc., Rudy Thorgeson, Trident Chemical Co. Paul R. Puckorius, Puckorius and Associates, Inc. 1988
Abstract: A safe, cost-effective biocide replacement for chlorine gas has long been sought. Described are results from a product evaluation that led to the replacement of chlorine gas in 25 cooling towers. The product selected is a new; EPA registered biocide and is a bromine and chlorine derivative of methylethyl and dimethylhydantoin. Performance tests have shown that effective bio-control is achieved when the product is applied on a slug basis. A simple, automated high-dissolution rate feeder system provides consistent and reliable delivery of halogen. Effective control is accomplished at very low or sub detectable levels of free available halogen. Because of this, metal corrosion rates, cooling tower wood delignification, and interaction with other water treatment chemicals are greatly reduced.
Chlorine Dioxide Solves Biofouling Problems in a Refinery Cooling Tower Used for Phenol Destruction (TP-84-06) Lex McGuire, Sun Refining & Marketing Co., Tom Dishinger, Drew Chemical Corporation 1984
Abstract: A large refinery uses wastewater effluent for cooling tower make-up to use the tower as a phenol reduction system through biological oxidation. Severe Biofouling of critical overhead exchangers reduced plant throughput. This paper details application procedures that use chlorine dioxide to greatly reduce biofouling without affecting the phenol destruction capabilities.
Safe Feed of Liquid Biocide a New Option for Microbiological Control In Cooling Water Systems (TP-243A) Frances C. Pocius, Nalco Chemical Company 1980
Abstract: A new biocide and feed system provides safe and effective control of microbiological growth in open cooling systems. Case studies of field trials will be discussed as well as benefits and details of the new feed system
A Simplified Application of Chlorine For Biological Control (TP-187A) William W. Wheeler, Rohm & Haas, Inc. 1978
Chlorine Dioxide a New Development in Effective Microbio Control (TP-153A) William J. Ward, Olin Water Services 1976

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