CTI Bibliography of Technical Papers - Ozone

Revised 2005

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Order NumberTitleAuthorDate
Reducing Cooling Tower costs with Ozone Technology Andrew Conner, Cleanwater Ozone Systems, Inc. 2005
Abstract: Maintaining high water quality within a cooling tower is an operator's biggest struggle in keeping an efficient, healthy tower. Conventional water maintenance methods include chemicals and regular blowdowns. Ozone technology however, is the fastest growing challenger to conventional treatment. Ozone, the most powerful commercial oxidizer available, has the ability to disinfect tower water, reduce scale, and significantly decrease the amount of blowdown water. From midsize corporate office buildings to NASA's Kennedy Space Center, operators are finding that ozone technology has the ability to reduce costs substantially over chemical treatment.
Guidelines and Examples of Ozone in Cooling Tower Applications Lee C. Ditzler, TriOx 1995
Abstract: This paper discusses the current state of the art in applying ozone as a solo treatment and with supplementary cooling tower treatments. These supplementary treatments include chemical treatments as well as additional electromechanical equipment. Different water chemistries will be reviewed in light of the success and failure of the ozone systems. Ozone as a biocide and legionella control will also be reviewed. Cooling tower sytems using ozone with and without other treatment will be used as example.
Design Consideration for Ozone Water Treatment Systems in Cooling Towers Carl Nebel, PCI Ozone & Control Systems, Inc. 1994
Abstract: The design of ozone systems for cooling tower water treatment has been varied. This paper discusses the various designs and presents both the positive and negative sides to the design options. Those design options that have led to system failure are also presented. The most important design factors are the ozone generating equipment sizing, dissolving ozone in water and the distribution of the ozone containing water into the cooling tower system.
Update of Cooling Tower Ozonation at an Organic Chemical Manufacturing Facility (TP-92-04) James A. Merritt, Emery- Trailigaz Ozone Company 1992
Abstract: Beginning in September 1975, ozone replaced chlorine in a crossfire induced draft-cooling tower at a Henkel Corporation, Emery Group organic chemical manufacturing facility (Building 60) in Cincinnati. A year later a sister chemical plant (Building 68) in Cincinnati adopted ozone for its cooling tower. The results from these two applications were first reported in an address delivered to the International Ozone Association in June of 1981. This paper reviews the operation of these systems since the 1981 address. The two towers have continued to use ozone during the last ten years, in conjunction with a chromate corrosion inhibitor package. The chromate package was discontinued in early 1990 and a costs/benefits evaluation of ozone only treatment versus treatment with an organophosphate/zinc corrosion inhibitor package, with various biocides, has recently been performed. Building 60's tower has been treated with ozone only and building 68's tower with a Betz 35K program. The results of the two tower programs has been mixed. Continuation of the testing is being done to try to mix the benefits of both programs.
Biocidal Aspects of Ozone for Cooling Water Treatment - Probable Impacts of Bromide Ion (TP-92-07) Rip G. Rice, Ph.D., Rice Int'l Consulting Enterprises, J. Fred Wilkes, Consultant 1992
Abstract: Some ozone suppliers claim Biocidal benefits of ozone throughout the cooling systems. Yet the short half-life of ozone coupled with the high ozone demands of cooling waters make it unreasonable to expect that any residual ozone will be present shortly after its application. Most cooling intake waters contain bromide ion (from traces up to 1.5 mg/L). Oxidization of bromide ion with ozone is known to produce the hypobromous acid/hypobromite ion (HOBr/Obr) couple, a stable biocide that survives after ozone residuals decay. The known chemistries of ozone oxidation of bromide ion will be discussed and a German cooling water treatment system based on these chemistries will be described.
Ozone Treatment of Cooling Water Results of a Full-Scale Performance Evaluation (TP-89-07) G. Darell Coppenger, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Benjamin R. Crocker & David E. Wheeler, Environmental Systems Corporation 1989
Abstract: This paper is the first technical status report of a continuing evaluation of ozone treatment for cooling tower water systems. Data will be presented that illustrates the results of ozone treatment in a 3400-ton air conditioning cooling systems at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Heat transfer data and equipment inspections confirm that a threshold surface temperature exists; below which heat exchange surfaces remain free of mineral scale and microbiological foulants. Heat exchange surfaces that exceed the temperature threshold experience calcium carbonate scaling. The temperature threshold effect may explain why ozone treatment has been reported as a successful treatment for air conditioning cooling systems. Plans for future ozone investigations will be discussed.
Ozone - An Alternate Method of Treating Cooling Tower Water (TP-87-17) H. Banks Edwards, P.E., Consultant 1987
Abstract: Ozone has been an effective biocide for over 100 years, reduces or eliminates biomass, Legionnaires' Disease, bacterial delignification and corrosion, oxidizes many organic and inorganic contaminants. By automatically maintaining the ozone concentration in the water through Redox control, the pH level is maintained while biological fouling/scale deposition are greatly reduced or eliminated. Previous ozone installations have not used supplemental treatment chemicals. This allows the cooling water to be recycled without fear of high concentrations of dissolved solids associated with corrosion and without containing potential environmental hazards while eliminating continuous blowdown. Operating and maintenance costs are materially reduced and efficiency increased.

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