CTI Bibliography of Technical Papers - Repair and Construction

Revised 2017

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Repair and Construction
Order NumberTitleAuthorDate
Project Neptune: International Collaboration for High Wind Load Cooling Tower Design Solutions Paul Cerullo and Melanie Gatbonton, Energy Development Corporation and Andjelko Piskuric, SPX Cooling Technologies 2017
Abstract: The Energy Development Corporation (EDC) is an owner and operator of geothermal power plants in the Philippines. The Southeast Asian region is prone to typhoons and the Philippines encounters an average of 20 typhoons each year. In 2013, the Philippines was hit by Typhoon Haiyan, which was the strongest storm ever recorded. The country sustained over 6,300 deaths, and heavily destroyed the power plants. This paper will focus on how the cooling towers were rebuilt and strengthened, and how a unique solution was implemented to reinforce the fan cylinders to enable them to sustain 300 kph wind loads.
Hope Creek Circulating 144-inch Water Pipeline Carbon Fiber Anna Pridmore, Ph. D, Structural Technologies, LLC 2016
Abstract: Recently Hope Creek Nuclear Station identified seven distressed segments of its 144-inch circulating water pipeline in need of repair. Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP), a trenchless structural repair system, was selected to strengthen the pre-stressed concrete cylinder pipe (PCCP). The PCCP lines at Hope Creek are the backbone of the circulating water system. CFRP is a repair material used to provide targeted structural upgrades within distressed or damaged pipeline sections of the repair. Attendees will learn about this unique material used to extend the life of circulating water pipeline systems.
Cooling Tower Support Framing Systems: Distress and Repair Narendra Gosain and Ray Drexler, Walter P Moore And Associates, Inc. 2015
Abstract: Other than specifying the loads and support points for the cooling towers, the cooling tower manufacturer has very limited involvement in the design of support framing for commercial type cooling towers. Over a period of time, the cooling towers themselves generally undergo the required maintenance, but their support framing is often neglected. As such, extensive deterioration and distress has been observed in several cooling tower support structures. The paper describes some of the problems caused by such neglect and the methods used to restore the integrity of such framing. Some case histories are also discussed.
Empirical Methods for Inspecting, Analyzing and Converting Large Field Erected Wood Cooling Towers to Fiberglass Structure Philip Poll, OBR Cooling Towers and Al Feltzin, Linde Gas 2015
Abstract: A series of empirical methods for inspecting, analyzing and converting large field erected wood cooling towers to fiberglass structure. Methods of inspecting and documenting the existing conditions, evaluating and selecting new materials and performance of respective repairs will be explained. A large field erected cooling tower operating in a harsh environment with sea water bulk recirculation will be the subject of the study.
AEP’s Experience with Failure Modes in FRP Cooling Towers Bob Cashner, American Electric Power; Hota GangaRao, West Virginia University 2014
Abstract: The intent of this paper is to share information on how pultruded fiberglass members can fail or be structurally compromised. Failed or cracked fiberglass columns were found in five towers during construction or after 18 months of operation. The failed or cracked columns were attributed to misuse of fiberglass bearing pads or poor construction procedures. Several failed columns and horizontal members were also damaged from ice. Surface blisters were noticed in two of the new towers after 2 to 18 months of operation. A summary of these events will be discussed in this paper along with the probable reasons and actions AEP is taking to prevent a reoccurrence.
How Stripping Biofilm From The Cooling Water Loop Impacts Power Plant Production Output Cem Candir and Tom Muilenberg, MIOX Corporation 2013
Abstract: The operational relationship between the cooling tower’s cooling loop performance and power plant production load is vitally important. When condenser tube sheet fouling is present, the production load of the power plant is affected especially if the power plant is operating at its peak capacity. It becomes a critical concern if biofilm, visible or not, is present in condenser tube sheets as even a small amount of biofilm has a significant impact on heat transfer efficiency. This paper will present the current challenges in power plant cooling loop treatment and case evidence where biofilm removal improved heat transfer efficiency resulting in increased power plant’s production load.
Expedited Field Erected Cooling Tower Replacement/upgrade with Limited Site Access and Available Tow Al Feltzin, Linde Gas; Philip Poll, OBR Cooling Towers, Inc. and Casey Yurkovitch, GEA Heat Exchangers Inc. 2013
Abstract: An innovative replacement and upgrade of field erected cooling tower over an existing basin with limited site access. An aggressive construction schedule of eight weeks was followed with a limited total plant outage of three days. Cooling Tower performance was maximized including a decision mid project schedule to increase the tower footprint by approximately 25% without increasing the size of the existing cold water basin. Tower was completely stick built and erected two weeks ahead of schedule with zero safety incidents.
Replacement of the Concrete Cooling Tower by Steel Structure Cooling Tower During the Operation Martin Kubicek, FANS, A.S. and Mohan Krishna Myneni, FANS Asia Pvt Ltd 2012
Abstract: The paper deals with cooling tower replacement, where concrete structure cooling tower has been replaced by steel structure cooling tower type CTF during the operation. The problem has been solved with two cells concrete cooling tower in the Czech Republic where only simple maintenance was planned. During the first days of work it was recognized that any type of refurbishment was not possible. Existing concrete cooling tower has been replaced by new steel structure cooling tower. Min advantage of CTF steel structure cooling tower is construction/erection speed, flexibility and finally price.
Structural Integrity of Hyperbolic Cooling Tower with Imperfections in Geometry and Verticality Narendra Gosan, Prasad Samarajiva and Farouk Mahama, Walter P Moore 2012
Abstract: Due to the large sizes of the concrete hyperbolic cooling towers and the difficulties encountered during construction, it is not always possible to maintain the dimensional accuracy of the towers. Imperfections in the intended geometry and verticality do occur which can have an impact on the stresses in the thin concrete shell structure. Using an existing hyperbolic cooling tower as an example and some possible imperfection scenarios of the structure, the paper will provide a parametric study on when certain imperfections become critical for the safety of the cooling tower when subjected to wind.
Understanding Mast Climber Systems Kevin O’Shea, Mastclimbers, LLC 2012
Abstract: Mast Climbing Work Platforms (MCWP’s) are becoming a popular method of access in the demolition and repair of cooling towers and stacks throughout the USA. With the flexibility of MCWP systems, specialist contractors are finding the equipment invaluable.
Structural Integrity Of Hyperbolic Cooling Towers In Seismic Zones During Concrete Veil Repair Narendra Gosain and Farouk Mahama, Walter P Moore 2011
Abstract: Concrete cooling towers in seismic zones that have been exposed to corrosion causing conditions are susceptible to deterioration over a period of time. When repair to such towers are considered, large areas of concrete will need to be removed from the structures. This may impair the structural integrity to withstand dynamic loading due to earthquakes. The paper will provide an approach in developing some guidelines for repairs to minimize the risk of structural distress in a seismic event that occurs without warning.
Natural Draft Hyperbolic Cooling Towers Concrete Rehabilitation & Cathodic Protection Nick Nowell and Bill Blennerhassett, Structural Preservation Systems 2011
Abstract: Natural Draft Hyperbolic Cooling Tower structures are essential components of energy generation. They function as heat rejection devices by extracting waste heat to the atmosphere. Many of the structures in service in the United States today were constructed in the early-to-mid 1980s and are approaching their original design life. Due to the substantial cost of new construction, as well as the long outage required for replacement and the resulting loss of revenue, a strategic repair program is an economical option to maintain structural integrity and prolong the service life of the structure.
Hyperbolic Repack on the Run James Cuchens and Chris Lazenby, Southern Company Services, Inc and James L. Baker, Composite Cooling Solutions, LP 2011
Abstract: The industry’s first hyperbolic repack of its kind was completed by last year at the Southern Companies, Miller Steam Plant in Alabama. At least one of the two units supplied by the tower remained online with water continuously circulating over half the tower throughout the project. The original fill was severely fouled. It had numerous gaps allowing air bypass, and was falling out of the tower. Our Cooling Tower Contractor removed the under-performing fill and replaced it with high performance fill packs. The new fill was rigidly supported from beneath. Our contractor introduced a pultruded fiberglass fill support system that was suspended using aspects of the old “proprietary” hanging system that was part of the tower’s original design. The new bottom-supported system gives owners a superior alternative to old hanging fill methods when replacing fill media. The project was completed safely, ahead of schedule, and resulted in a tower with improved thermal efficiency testing out at over 100%.
Silica Scale Inhibition - A Kinetic Study Heinz Plaumann, Keith Hirsch, and Joseph Lipari, BASF Corporation 2010
Abstract: The formation of silica and silicate scales in the chemical process industries is a significant on-going problem with large economic consequences. The fouling of surfaces can reduce heat transfer and cooling efficiencies. This may also affect reaction kinetics. The removal of such scales is often a complex mechanical or chemical process and the up-front prevention of their formation is a much desired solution to the problem. In this presentation, we compare several chemistries for the inhibition of such scale formation, using various proprietary polymeric materials as additives in an industry standard test. The resulting data have allowed us to develop a simple kinetic model comparing performance of the additives under various conditions and these results have provided us with direction for potential process improvements with reduction in scale formation.
A New Control Scheme Provides the Most Cooling for Your Money Robbie McElveen, Baldor Electric Company and Mike Daley, Hudson Products Corporation 2010
Abstract: Many cooling towers in place today operate below their maximum capability due to a number of factors. When setting the blade pitch, it is common for the cooling tower manufacturer to set the pitch a little lower than the pitch which would result in full amp draw from the motor. This allows for some "extra" capability on days where the temperature and humidity of the air cause the load on the motor to increase. This paper discusses a control scheme by which real time motor temperature data is used to insure maximum output while simultaneously protecting the motor from an overheating condition.
Structural Condition Assessment of Concrete Cooling Towers Kevin Michols and Leandro Etcheverry, Wiss, Janney, Elstner 2010
Abstract: As reinforced concrete cooling towers age, their harsh operating environments can lead to deterioration and structural distress. Both mechanical and natural-draft cooling towers present unique conditions inherent to their type of construction and exposure conditions. With time, process and environmental exposure conditions render the towers susceptible to corrosion of embedded steel reinforcing, concrete cracking and spalling, and in cold climates freeze-thaw deterioration. Operational cycling and construction defects can accelerate deterioration. Condition assessment of cooling tower structures is essential to identify safety and structural concerns, determine the root cause of distress, and plan maintenance needs. Condition assessments typically involve visual inspections and various nondestructive testing techniques. Depending on observed conditions, concrete core sampling and laboratory testing are used to characterize materials quality and durability. Structural analysis may be required to evaluate structural capacity. Condition assessments are typically conducted during short-duration outages. Depending on the elements to be surveyed, manlifts, suspended swingstages, or fixed scaffolding are used to provide up close access. Condition assessment of cooling towers is a key component of an overall facility maintenance program. Case studies will be presented to illustrate condition assessment methods and results. Information from the assessments provide the knowledge necessary to monitor structural conditions, plan maintenance, and when necessary prioritize repairs to maximize the service life of cooling towers.
Cooling Tower Basin Leakage Assessment & Mitigation Thomas R. Kline, Structural Group, Inc. 2010
Abstract: Cooling Technology in the form of Cooling Towers has been in use for decades and almost from the beginning, the term "make-up water" has been part of the cooling equation. While designers allow for cooling water evaporation into the atmosphere, excessive amounts of cooling water loss requiring "make-up water" has become a larger issue, especially in those semi-arid to arid regions where water conservation is at an absolute premium. Water losses, not associated with process evaporation, usually can be traced to containment losses. These containment losses occur because the retaining vessel materials of construction, most commonly reinforced concrete, is relatively porous, designed with maintenance-prone construction/expansion joints and subject to long-term material shrinkage cracking. As such, techniques have been developed to assess and determine cooling water leakage, joint adequacy, and the presence of subsurface voids. Once assessed, Means & Methods have been developed to repair, stabilize and subseal voids to provide significant water-tightness to existing Cooling Tower Basins, regardless of the technology (i.e., Natural Draft vs. Mechanical Draft.)
Common Industrial Cooling Tower Errors and Omissions James L. Willa, Willa, Inc. 2009
Abstract: This paper lists many errors in specifications, bid evaluations, construction and operation. Most of these problems have been addressed in previous CTI papers and bulletins. However, these errors continue to be made effecting cost and performance of cooling towers. This is a brief review of some of the most important of these errors and methods to correct them.
Construction Productivity Guidelines for Field Erected Cooling Towers James Baker, Composite Cooling Solutions, L.P. 2008
Abstract: Construction contacts on field erected cooling towers have two major types of cost: fixed and variable. Fixed costs are costs a contractor procures on a fixed price. Variable costs are items such as labor, supervision, equipment and job overhead. On many field erected cooling tower projects, the largest single area of cost overrun is in supervision and labor costs. This is not surprising, because supervision and labor are frequently the largest variable cost for a contractor. Within the past 20-years, there has been significant research in construction labor productivity which provides an increasing body of empirical data as to the effects of various factors on construction labor productivity within our industry.
Etiwanda Cooling Towers, Repair or Replace Robert Fulkerson, Fulkerson & Associates, Inc 2007
Abstract: This paper discusses the structural problems and structural failures associated with the 43 year old cooling towers located at Reliant Energies' Etiwanda Power Plant located in Rancho Cucamonga, California. It describes the decision analysis procedure used to determine if the cooling towers should be repaired or replaced with new cooling towers. It also describes the necessary modifications required to improve the soundness and reliability of the structure.
Rehabilitation of Hyperbolic Cooling Towers at Electric Generating Station Kevin A. Michols, CTLGroup 2007
Abstract: Two concrete cooling towers serving a generating station exhibited concrete deterioration, steel corrosion, and water leakage. These towers needed major repairs that could be done only during scheduled outages.
Living in a Material World Frank T. Morrison, Baltimore Aircoil Company 2007
Abstract: The proper selection of materials of construction is critical to ensuring long life, reduced maintenance, and operational reliability for evaporative cooling equipment. These functional needs must be balanced with the budgetary constraints on each project, both on a first cost and operating cost basis. This paper examines the wide range of materials currently available for components used in open and closed circuit cooling towers as well as evaporative condensers. Whether using galvanized steels, stainless steel, or FRP, we are living in a material world where the right material choices can provide long-term payoffs, but the wrong choices can be costly.
Large Scale Mechanical Equipment Replacement - Simple Steps for Success David M. Suptic, David M. Suptic P.E., LLC 2006
Abstract: Faced with multiple gear reducer failures on two large cooling towers, an international power generation facility replaced 28 sets of rear reduction drives and supporting structure with new, upgraded equipment. A description of the unique nature of this large scale equipment replacement project provides the reader with several key steps to insure success on construction products of a similar nature.
Westar Energy Cooling Tower Rebuilds David Spacek, Westar Energy, Inc. 2006
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to detail the activities which took place before and during the reconstruction of the (2) cooling towers of Unit #3 during the months of October and November of 2005. The paper identifies the activities and justification involved leading up to this replacement as well as the procedures performed to actually demolish and rebuild these (2) towers during a 5-week outage.
Wind Load Rated Packaged Cooling Towers Daniel S. Kelly, EVAPCO 2006
Abstract: Changes to national building codes and state building codes in California and Florida have given rise to special requirements for cooling towers to be able to withstand windload and seismic forces.
Complete Structural Rebuild of two Six Cell Crossflow Cooling Towers using all FRP Members Deano Sarantakos, Kentucky Utilities 2005
Abstract: This paper will detail the demolition and rebuild of two Marley 6,000 series cooling towers using all FRP members. It will begin with the inspection stage and include design, material, and mechanical options, history of the tower's maintenance as well as other towers on site, the company's purchasing procedures, pictures of demolition and construction, and performance data.
Update on the Impact of Water Immersion for Pultruded FRP Clint Smith, Strongwell 2004
Abstract: The development of CTI Standard 137 generated some questions regarding the performance of pultruded structural shapes in a water immersion environment. No data existed for pultruded Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic (FRP), but there was some concern regarding a reduction of properties. Three pultruders who supply the Cooling Tower Industry with structural shapes submitted samples for a water immersion analysis that has been underway with periodic testing for over one year. This paper gives an update of that study which is scheduled to last two years in addition to other water exposure data on pultruded FRP. This information will be useful for individuals designing cooling towers.
Crossflow to Counterflow Natural Draft Tower Conversion Dr. John Arntson, Jamie Bland and Mike Bickerstaff, Ceramic Cooling Tower Corporation and Merwin Jones, Mirant Mid-Atlantic LLC 2003
Abstract: This paper describes the turnkey conversion of an existing Marley Class 700 natural draft cooling tower at Mirant Mid-Atlantic LLC's Chalk Point Generating Station in Southern Maryland, USA from a crossflow configuration to a counterflow configuration. The work involved demolition of the severely degraded crossflow cooling heat exchange system and installing an all new composite fiberglass support structure, low-fouling PVC film fill, high efficient PVC drift eliminators and optimized distribution system, within an 11 week planned outage during the Winter of 2002.
One Company's Legionella Standard J.W. Smith, Shell Global Solutions; Jerry Ransdell and Jim McLean, Shell Chemical Co. 2003
Abstract: Following issuance of Legionella guidelines by CTI, Shell Chemical Company (SCC) upgraded procedures for control of Legionella in its water systems. A Standard was developed which addresses all water systems. This paper will focus on SCC standards and guidelines for cooling towers. The Standard is more prescriptive than the CTI guideline and represents a compilation of regulations and guidelines in the literature. It requires a Health Risk Assessment (HRA) and development of a plan to address risk areas, outlines minimum standards, and provides examples of how to meet the standards. For towers, Legionella testing is required and chlorine residual control ranges are specified.
Correcting Sedimentation Problems at American Electric Power's Conesville Plant River Intake Frank Michell, Pedro Amaya, and C. Dannemiller, American Electric Power, Dr. Robert Ettema, and Marian Muste, University of Iowa 2003
Abstract: American Electric Power's Conesville Generating Station has had a history of chronic problems with silt build-up at the river intake structure. This paper will describe modifications that were completed to the area in front of the intake and to the upstream riverbank that successfully eliminated the sedimentation accumulation problem. Analytical and hydraulic model studies conducted during the design optimization process and construction techniques utilized to minimize impact to the operating generating station will also be reviewed.
Concrete Basins, Materials Selection in Design and Repair. Thomas G. Toth, Psychrometrics Systems, Inc. 2002
Abstract: This paper is meant to provide a basic introduction and general understanding of the materials available for use in concrete towers and basins, and issues to be accounted for in the design to provide longevity. A basic introduction to the causes of deteriorations in concrete will also be presented along with some common repair methods and repair materials.
Suitability of Preservative-Treated Radiata Pine for Cooling Tower Construction. R.N. Wakeling, D.R. Page and M.J. Collins, Cooling tower Fabricators 2002
Abstract: For over 50 years, radiata pine has been the main construction lumber used in New Zealand. This solely plantation-grown species has unique properties that make it very amenable to preservative treatment, unlike species such as Douglas fir, spruce or hemlock. These properties have allowed it to be used successfully in all manner of industrial applications in New Zealand and Australia, including cooling tower construction. Data is presented to illustrate the long-term durability and serviceability of this species.
Avoiding Cooling Tower Catastrophe. James L. Willa, Willa, Inc. 2002
Abstract: The three major catastrophic events on cooling towers are structural failure, fan failure, and icing damage, in that order. This paper describes in detail the causative factors, methods of detection prior to event, workable preventative solutions, and solutions after the event, on all three types of catastrophes. The author has been personally involved in these type failures on multiple occasions over the past years.
Collapse of Tuttle No. 2 Cooling Tower and Resulting Replacement/Repair Program. Stephen Tips, City Public Service 2002
Abstract: Since the collapse of the W.B. Tuttle plant No. 2, 10-cell, Marley cooling tower in 1998, City Public Service has re-evaluated the condition of its six other old wooden towers and developed a plan for insuring against further failures. Two towers were replaced with new fiberglass towers, and another replacement planned. Three 40-45 year-old creosote treated redwood Marley towers are being repaired and reinforced. This paper describes the failure, replacements, repairs, reinforcement, and reasoning used in making difficult decisions on major expenditures for aging towers on old peaking units with uncertain futures.
Collapse of the Conesville 4B Seven Cell Mechanical Draft Cooling Tower Frank L. Michell, Walt Demjanenko & Joe Tseng, American Electric Power 2000
Abstract: Early in the morning of July 12, 1998, one of the two seven cell mechanical draft cooling towers serving American Electric Power's (AEP) 780 MW Conesville Unit 4 suddenly collapsed into the cold water basin. Investigation into the cause of the catastrophic collapse and resulting methodology for evaluating the structural integrity of similar towers on the AEP System will be reviewed. Structural upgrades incorporated into the replacement tower design will also be discussed.
Safe Construction of Field Erected Cooling Towers Mike Bickerstaff, Ceramic Cooling Tower Corporation 2000
Abstract: Field construction and repair of cooling towers often involves safety, health and environment conditions for employees. This fact has long been acknowledged by cooling tower construction companies. There is, however a growing interest in employee safety by the customers, which employ tower suppliers to construct or repair towers in the field. This paper will discuss potential hazards on a cooling tower jobsite, state procedures to correct the potential hazards, and suggest methods to incorporate safety, health and environmental procedures. Finally, the paper will relate the additional benefits that a customer would receive with a safe work environment.
Evaluation of Design Loads for FRP Composite Columns Dr. Robert L. Yuan, University of Texas 1999
Abstract: This paper presents an evaluation of design loads for FRP composite columns fabricated from a pultrusion process. An experimental investigation was performance on the behavior of three manufacturing products, including two column cross-section configurations with various lengths. The objectives of the research are to determine the ultimate load capacity of each group and to compare with the published design information. All full-scale columns were tested in a vertical position under axial compressive loads. The test results and analysis have provided a comprehensive evaluation of FRP Composite columns.
Improved Ower Plant Performance With Evaporative Steam Condensing Dave Hutton, Baltimore Aircoil Company 1999
Abstract: Combining an open cooling tower and a steam condenser into one common unit is a proven technology with many advantages in power generation applications, including reduced first cost, reduced energy consumption, reduced maintenance, and simplified H2O treatment. Performance of the steam turbine benefits from the evaporative condenser's direct approach to wet bulb temp, and operating reliability improves compared to cooling tower/surface condenser. Case histories and comparisons will be presented.
The Retrofit of a Big Cooling Tower at an Oil Refinery in Vienna in Combination with a Significant Noise Reduction Henk van der Spek, Ventilatoren Sirocco Howden 1999
Abstract: At a big oil refinery in Vienna an 18 unit cooling tower has been retrofitted with fan and drive equipment in combination with a significant noise reduction. Public authorities only allowed the necessary retrofitting of the cooling tower after 18 years of operation, if the dominating noise generation of the towers would be effectively reduced. From an inventory study by acoustic specialists it hs turned out that the cooling tower fans were the dominating noise sources for the exposed urban area, in spite of the presence of splashing water in the tower. Two fans have been selected for qualification together with quiet drive equipment. Finally a super low noise fan with special shape could only be accepted. Beside the choice for the fan, the low noise demands had an impact on the selection on all other equipment like E-mothers and gearboxes. The correctness fo the noise analyses was confirmed by control readings after the retrofit job. The presentation will review problem inventory, equipment selection procedure, technical impact of noise requirements on all components and verification.
Advances in Oil Mist Lubrication for Cooling Towers Fred Paben, Lubrication Systems Company 1998
Abstract: This paper reviews the operating principles and advances that have been made in oil mist lubrication for electric motors and purcing gearboxes. Oil mist systems provide the most effective protection against water contamination, corrosion and premature failures of cooling tower gearboxes. Users report a reduction up to 90% of the lubrication related electric motor bearing failures and 75% of the gearbox failures. This minimizes injury risk by reducing field repair work. A case study of a cooling tower installation in a refinery will be presented.
Design Considerations for a Fiberglass, Field Erected, Closed-Circuit Cooling Tower Christopher W. Carlson, P.E., Baltimore Aircoil Company 1997
Abstract: What is believed to be the world's first fiberglass, field erected, closed-circuit cooling tower has been recently constructed. The paper contains a review of the major design differences between closed-circuit cooling towers in which the air and water streams flow essentially parallel and other more conventional field erected cooling products. The structural design considerations for dead, wind and vibrational loads as well as those required for field erection are offered. Guidelines for the selection of composite and non-composite materials of construction are presented.
PGDP Enhances Plant RCW Reliability Michael Talley, Teresa Gross, John Elrod, Lockheed Martin Utility Services 1997
Abstract: The recirculating cooling water (RCW) system has served the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) since 1951. Over the years, there have been changes to the system: cooling tower additions, cooling tower replacements, pump upgrades and the installation of a cathodic protection system. However, the basic system of headers and piping remains the same as the original construction. This paper will illustrate the problems experienced in a 40+-year-old piping system and the methods used to transform failing expansion joints, valves and piping ranging from 12 and 60 inch diameter into a reliable operating facility.
Cross to Counter Flow Repack on Induced Draft Operating Cooling Tower Michel Monjoie, Hamon Thermal Engineers & Contractors 1996
Abstract: The paper describes the repack experience of a cross flow cooling tower to a counter flow one using film fill, the cooling tower remaining in operation. The thermal capability, the winter operation and the pumping head has been improved.
Design Methodology and Recommended Maintenance for FRP Composite Structured Cooling Towers (TP-92-05) JessSeawell & Toby Daley, Ceramic Cooling Tower Co. 1992
Abstract: High performance composite structures and components offer long life, low maintenance, and corrosion-free, low fire hazard options to the cooling tower owner. But to take full advantage of this life expectancy the designer must be aware of certain design parameters unique to composites that must be addressed. Additionally, there are routine inspections and maintenance procedures that should be incorporated to insure and prolong the cooling tower structure integrity.
On-Line Rebuild of Cooling Tower Serving a 500 MW Power Station (TP-91-06) Roger R. Burger, Grand River Dam Authority, H. Peter Fay, GEA Power Cooling Systems, Inc. 1991
Abstract: Upgrading and rebuilding of cooling towers during plant outages is common practice in industry. Demolition and rebuilding of a tower while keeping the plant on-line at full power presents special challenges and solutions. This paper describes such a rebuild program including the planning, specifying, and execution involved in replacing an existing wood framed tower with a concrete tower at the Grand River Dam Authority Power Station.
Refurbishing America's First Hyperbolic Cooling Tower (TP-91-15) Brian W. Deuvall, The Marley Cooling Tower Co., and Frank L. Michel & Dan H. Drew, American Electric Power Service Corp. 1991
Abstract: When completed in 1962, Kentucky Power Company's Big Sandy Unit 1 cooling tower was the first built in this country using large-scale natural draft design with a concrete hyperbolic shell. The decision to replace the internal components recently after 26 years of operation offered the opportunity to utilize current technology and materials. This tower's maintenance and operations history, and general condition at time of rebuild will be reviewed.
Removal of Asbestos Paper Fill From Large Industrial Cooling Towers (TP-90-04) E.D. Mittendorf, Cascade Dept. Operations Division 1990
Abstract: A total of 81 counterflow fan cells at the Paducah Plant contain asbestos paper fill. Because of environmental and health considerations and the deteriorated condition of the fill itself, it was determined that we should remove and replace this fill. This document deals with an approved method of removing asbestos paper fill. Included will be a discussion of the proper safety equipment and clothing, sampling techniques, plasticizing the entire tower, obtaining negative air through High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters, removal of the asbestos, and moving it to landfill. Final clean up, encapsulation of any remaining fibers, and clearance sampling will also be discussed.
Crossflow to Counterflow Cooling Tower Conversion (TP-89-03) Allen E. Feltzin, Airco Industrial Gases 1989
Abstract: This paper describes the conversion of a 16,000 gpm single crossflow wood splash tower to a film pack counterflow tower at one of our air separation plants. Emphasis is placed on a thermal benefits as compared to other retrofit options. Performance test results are included.
Modification of the Induce Draft Cooling Tower at Cross Generating Station - Cross, South Carolina (TP-89-09) R.W. Lemay & Vino Verma, Santee Cooper 1989
Abstract: Research Cottrell constructed the concrete induced draft-cooling tower at Cross Generating Station in 1984. The initial performance test indicated a major tower deficiency. The subsequent performance tests I '85-'87 indicated a drastic degradation in performance. The tower was upgraded in April '88 during the scheduled plant outage of three weeks. The major modification included replacing the existing fill (approx. 180,000 cubic feet), nozzle assemblies, drift eliminators and adding a cross-flow section. A performance test of modified tower is to be conducted in June-July. Results will be discussed.
Restoration, Testing and Repair of 30-Year Cooling Tower at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Phase II (TP-87-16) M.F. Shelton, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. 1987
Abstract: Four fan cells of a 30-year old, 14 cell crossflow, redwood splash fill tower were selected to install and test PVC-V-Bar fill. This paper deals with the demolition, installation and unique method of collecting tower off water temperature data to perform a CTI Performance Test. Because of cooling demand the entire 14-cell fan cell tower had to remain in service during the tests.
Replacement of Asbestos Cement Fills in Natural Draft Cooling Towers (TP-86-08) George A. Gay & David W. Stackhouse, Custodis-Ecodyne, Inc. 1986
Abstract: Case studies will be presented based on experience with actual fill replacements in crossflow and counterflow towers. The contribution of water chemistry and cold weather operation to deterioration of asbestos cement fill will be addressed. Environmental considerations in handling and disposal of asbestos materials will be discussed along with the appropriate interface with regulatory agencies. Details of the design and installation of the replacement plastic fill system will be shown and their effect on the performance of the tower will be described.
Restoration and Repair of 30-Year Old Cooling Towers at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Phase I (TP-85-11) M.F. Shelton, Martin Marietta Energy Systems 1985
Abstract: Major cooling tower repairs accomplished during 1983 and 1984: 1) Replacing the underground portion of 46 risers located at 6 cooling towers, 2) Deck replacement on 2 16-cell counterflow and 2 14-cell crossflow towers. 3) Fan motor feeder cable and conduit replacement on 2 16-cell counterflow and 2 14-cell crossflow towers. Deals with equipment condition, problems encountered and types of replacement materials.
Utility Crossflow Cooling Tower Thermal Repair & Upgrading (TP-85-21) Dennis R. Moran, CM Towers, Inc. 1985
Abstract: The "new" crossflow cooling towers built for the power generation field during the 1970's has undergone significant problems with the fill/support systems. This report looks at what has been the cause, as well as reviewing the updated considerations for repairing from a thermal, materials of construction and cost point of view.
Preplanning for Cooling Tower Upgrading (TP-259A) C.J. McCann, Tower Performance Inc. 1983
Abstract: Before proceeding with a thermal upgrade project determine the present, or like new, thermal operating level of the tower relative to the original design conditions. Then, with an evaluation of the components and thermal potential the user can establish the necessary steps to meet his cooling requirements.
An Evaluation of Steel as a Cooling Tower Structural Material (TP-268A) David Hutton, P.E., Bac-Pritchard Inc. 1983
Abstract: An objective evaluation of common structural materials used in the construction of industrial cooling towers is made, based on their physical properties. The result is that steel offers the best overall combination of desirable properties, provided that a solution to corrosion in the industrial environment can be found. The theory of corrosion and accepted methods of corrosion protection are examined. A recently developed protection system utilizing a thermosetting hybrid polymer fusion-bonded to a hot-dip galvanized steel substrate (patent pending) is reviewed, with emphasis on how it was developed, and how its performance has been proven through a variety of chemical and mechanical tests. A conclusion is reached that steel with appropriate corrosion protection should be the preferred structural material for industrial cooling towers.
Cooling Tower - Money Making Machines (TP-242A) Robert Burger, Burger Assoc., Inc. 1981
Abstract: The question regarding what can be done to a cooling tower to decrease the sump temperature to improve plant performance is reviewed. Examples are discussed.
Considerations for the Structural Analysis and Design of Wood-Framed Cooling Towers (TP-220A) Robert I. Speight, P.E., Bac-Pritchard, Inc. 1980
Abstract: The analysis and design of timber-framed cooling towers is the process in which we must 1) summarize and coordinate applicable coodes and standards, 2) identify and classify loads imposed on the tower, 3) analyze the distributed effects of applied loads, 4) determine allowable loads, and 5) apply the design criteria in a manner consistent with actual physical details of the tower construction. When carried out in rigorous and practical manner, this process will yield a structure having a good balance of strength and economy.
Custom Reconstruction of Southwestern Public Service Company Jones Station Unit - 1 Cooling Tower (TP-205A) Peter G. Botsonis, Southwestern Public Service Company 1979
Basic Cooling Tower Technology and Rebuilding for Profits (TP-184A) Robert Burger, Robert Burger Associates, Inc. 1978
How to Repair a Cooling Tower (TP-173A) James L. Willa & David Hoffman Lilie-Hoffmann Cooling Towers, Inc. 1977
Cooling Tower Rebuilding (TP-125A) Robert Burger, Robert Burger Associates, Inc. 1974
Design of Concrete Basins for Cooling Towers (TP-92A) A.G. Stepp, Monsanto Company 1971
Cooling Tower Maintenance (TP-17B) J.R. DeMonbrun, Union Carbide Corporation 1965

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