CTI Bibliography of Technical Papers - Sidestream Softening

Revised 2009

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Sidestream Softening
Order NumberTitleAuthorDate
Filtration Solutions for Cooling Tower Systems Randy Serwan, Rain for Rent 2009
Abstract: This paper discusses ways to reduce maintenance cost; reduce biological growth by solids removal; increase cycles of concentration (i.e. by solids reduction); reduce blowdown cost (i.e. water conservation); reduce chemical cost (i.e. increased cycle time); reduce labor cost (i.e. mechanical and chemical cleaning of process equipment); longer periods of run time and reduce under-deposit corrosion.
Filtration for Multi Story Office Buildings HVAC Dr. Marcus N. Allhands PE, Amiad Filtration Systems and Victoria Allies, TNT Technology Company 2006
Abstract: HVAC systems on high-rise officer buildings in the Arizona desert and constantly abused by sand and dust. The timely removal of such debris form the cooling towers is essential. Automatic filtration systems with smart PLC logic provide reliable labor-free protection to the roof mounted cooling tower and other HVAC components. A reliable filtration system requires the proper design and installation. This paper will follow the design process and installation then follow up with detailed results.
It's time to Rethink Cooling Tower Filtration Dr. Marcus N. Allhands, Amiad Filtration Systems 2005
Abstract: The dissipation of ambient or process heat in large HVAC systems, manufacturing facilities, power generation plants, refineries, metal mills and forges, chemical plants and food processors is most often accomplished by cooling towers. These simple structures facilitate the transfer of unwanted energy (heat) from a transport liquid (usually water) to the atmosphere. The bane of cooling towers, with relation to efficient heat transfer and pathological risks to employees is suspended solids. These solids can originate in the process, in the piping, from the atmosphere or from internal biological growth. Side stream filtration is the most commonly used methods of maintaining minimal suspended solids in the cooling system. Present day systems rely mainly on two established methods of suspended solids removal. The first utilizes cyclonic principles and can remove only high specific gravity solids leaving organics such as algae behind. The other method is granular media filtration that generally requires very high volumes of flush water during its cleaning process. This filter type also accumulates particles of high specific gravity within its housing causing the eventual costly replacement of its media. Both of these methods require high energy inputs to operate. Automatic self cleaning screen filter technology not only removes both organic and inorganic solids regardless of specific gravity but also requires very little energy to operate and conserves coolant additives by using very little coolant liquid for the self cleaning process. By incorporating the cleaning cycle into the blowdown process of the cooling tower system the unwanted loss of coolant can be completely eliminated. This manuscript will address the operational processes of automatic self cleaning screen filtration technology and review a number of real world case studies in both commercial HVAC systems and manufacturing processes to prove the advantages over traditional cooling tower treatment systems.
Maintaining Clean Cooling Systems Faiza Abou Zeid, Aqua Trust for Water Treatment 2005
Abstract: By mechanical recommendations and chemical treatment applied to different cooling systems and mainly in ammonia production cooling system were proven flexible and achieve the control criteria. Using all organic chemicals based on a mixture of HEDP and PBTC phosphonate and Copolymer of malice acid together with sulfonated non ionic polymer and isothiazoline based microbiocid with chlorine with some recommendations like air bumping and back flushing for some coolers. The C.R. was less than 0.5 mpy, TBC less than 10,000 UFC/ml no SRB or iron bacteria. The plants are operated without any water related problems.
Cooling Tower Side Stream Filtration 101 Clarence Melancon, Water Filtration Technologies, Inc. 2004
Abstract: This paper will define, show the benefits, the sizing criteria and the types of filters associated with side stream filtration.
Demonstration of a Maximum Recycle Sidestream Softening System at a Petrochemical Plant (TP-85-05) Jack V. Matson, Wendy G. Mouche & Eric Rosenblum, Environmental Engineering Program University of Houston Division Ecodyne Corp. 1985
Abstract: The USS Chemicals petrochemical plant recycles all wastewater to the cooling water system and softens the blowdown for return to the system. I will document the performance of the system, its problems, and successes in the four years of operation.
Chemistry of Sidestream Softening and Silica Reduction (TP-234A) James T. Knight, Graver Water Division Ecodyne Corp. 1981
Abstract: Calculations predict, and testing confirms, that the solubility's of calcium carbonate and magnesium hydroxide are increased substantially in concentrated cooling waters. Silica reduction is shown to be kinetically controlled. A knowledge of the system allows prediction of effluent silica concentrations.
Status of Sidestream Softening (TP-216A) Jack V. Matson, University of Houston, Paul R. Puckorius, Puckorius & Associates, Inc. 1980
Abstract: Three plants currently operate their cooling water systems in the sidestream softening, zero discharge mode. Three new systems are in the construction phase. The systems will be reviewed with respect to design options and operational strategies. Predictions of possible future courses of this zero discharge technology will be made.
Sidestream Softening of Cooling Tower Blowdown (TP-166A) Jay Hennings & Charlie Misenheimer, Georgia-Pacific Corp., Harold Templet, Betz Laboratories, Inc. 1977
Sidestream Softening as a Means to Achieving Zero Blowdown From Evaporative Cooling Systems (TP-165A) D.T. Reed, E.F. Klen & D.A. Johnson, Nalco Chemical Co. 1977
Sidestream Filtration for Cooling Towers (TP-130A) Ellis G. Udwin, Baker Filtration Company 1974
Softening of Cooling Tower Blowdown Water For Reuse (TP-112A) C.C. Fowlkes, Union Carbide Corporation 1973
Sidestream Filtration with Diatomite (TP-45A) Raymond W. McIndoe, Johns Manville 1968
Current Practice in Sidestream Filtration for Cooling Towers (TP-25A) J.W. Hayes, Jr., Humble Oil & Refining Company 1967

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