CTI Bibliography of Technical Papers - Sound

Revised 2016

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Order NumberTitleAuthorDate
Using ATC-128 For Sound Testing & Verification In The Field Erik Miller-Klien, SSA Acoustics, LLP 2016
Abstract: This paper will evaluate the standard and published data for small towers per ATC-128 with respect to usability for acoustical consultants. Through testing of fully operationally field installed units and test-stand towers some challenges and opportunities have been identified to help improve the use and accuracy of ATC-128. Using ATC-128 in the field has distinct challenges associated with height, distance, and background noise. The paper includes a comparison to ANSI/AHRI 370 the standard for Sound Performance Rating of Large Air-Cooled Outdoor Refrigerating and Air-Condition Equipment.
Methodology To Validate Sound Levels Of Factory Assembled Towers John Dalton and Larry Burdick, SPX Cooling Technologies 2016
Abstract: The Cooling Technology Institute has a very successful, long standing program for thermal capability certification of factory assembled towers, but this type of confidence or 3rd party validation for published sound levels does not exist within the industry. The paper discusses an approach taken, with its successes and challenges, to acquire a sound data set for an entire crossflow model line that accurately reflects sound emission of all models within the line.
Review and Comments in the CTI Publication PTG-143: Technical Issues and Challenges Encountered During On-Site Testing Peter Holkers, Howden 2014
Abstract: Optimizing the performance of a fan assisted cooling tower can save significant amounts of energy consumption. For this purpose it is crucial to practically verify the intended fan duty point. In practice the determination of the operating point of a cooling fan is typically limited to the determination of the air volume flow rate through the fan or through the cooling tower as a whole. CTI publication PFM-134 “Recommended practice for air flow testing of cooling towers” provides detailed instructions on how to perform such an air volume flow rate test on a cooling tower.
The Cost Of Noise II Robert Giammaruti, Hudson Products Corporation 2011
Abstract: This is a follow on to the Cost of Noise paper presented in 2008 (TP08-16). The 2008 paper was focused on how noise affected project cost as a function of reduced far-field noise, for a static heat exchanger design. However, there is a second component that an air-cooled heat exchanger designer must take into account when looking at noise; specifically, how to balance the cost of the air-cooler metallurgy and design pressure with site noise requirements. In this paper, we will look at the effect of reduced far-field noise as a function of air-cooler metallurgy and design pressure. The goal here will be to demonstrate how these additional parameters influence optimum air-cooler cost design.
Sound Measurement from Field Erected Cooling Towers Ken Hennon and David Wheeler, Clean Air Engineering 2007
Abstract: The CTI Test Code for Measurement of Sound from Water Cooling Towers, ATC-128 (2005), defines two types of sound emissions tests for large cooling towers. The objective of the first test method is to quantify the sound level or personnel exposure levels in the working environment of the cooling tower. The objective of the second test method is intended to measure the total sound power emitted by the cooling tower by near field measurements. These near field measurements can then be subsequently projected to calculate sound power at far field points. This paper addresses both types of tests and present data from a recent field test and explains the challenges associated with the successful execution of a field test program.
Application of low Noise Technology for Evaporative Cooling Equipment Trevor Hegg - Evapco, Inc.
Paul Nelissen - Howden Cooling Fans
Abstract: Reduced sound levels are becoming an increasingly critical requirement in many evaporative cooling applications. This paper will focus on the technologies such as application of alternative fan designs, reduced rotational fan speed, and attenuation to reduce fan noise and attenuation and water silencing to reduce falling water noise will be presented. The magnitude of sound reduction for each technology will be illustrated. In addition, case histories will also be presented to illustrate the effect some of these technologies have in sound sensitive applications.
Cooling Tower Noise Gary R. Mirsky, Hamon Cooling Towers 1995
Abstract: The construction of new facilities today, especially electric generation or cogeneration stations require permit approval that contain criteria such as noise limits. These facilities are being installed on ever decreasing smaller plots that causes equipment installation close to property lines. It is convenient frequently to place the cooling tower almost adjacent to the property line, thus imposing a sever noise criteria on the cooling tower. Noise sources in the cooling towers include fan, water, gear reducers, and motors. These noise sources are emitted through the air inlet, fan stack, and casing. Attention to techniques will be evaluated.
Reduction of Noise Generation by Cooling Fans (TP-93-03) Ir. Henk F. van der Spek, Ventilatoren Sirocco Howden B.V 1993
Abstract: Based on an intensive research program, it has turned out that it is possible to reduce the sound power level of cooling fans with 3 to 8 dBA by the extreme application of more or less known effective principles like wider blade cord and swept leading edge line. Following international recognized measuring standards; the measuring results will be presented as well as consequences for cooling tower design and cooling fan construction.
The New CTI Sound Code - Interpretation and Application (TP-245A) Tom Rose, Joiner-Pelton-Rose, Inc. 1982
Abstract: A new CTI Code, ATC-128, standardizing the measurement of sound from water-cooling towers was recently adopted. The highlights of this code will be reviewed. The implications of the code will be examined regarding current instrumentation that will and will not be acceptable along with techniques required but not explicitly stated in the Standard.
The Sound of Low-Speed Fans (TP-160A) Bruce E. Murray & Eric W. Wood, Bolt Beranek and Newman, Inc. 1977
Induce Draft Cooling Tower Noise and Its Control (TP-161A) John S. Wang, Exxon Research and Engineering Company 1977
Noise Prediction Techniques for Siting Large Natural Draft and Mechanical Draft Cooling Towers (TP-159A) Gregory A. Capano & Wayne E. E. Bradley, Stone & Webster Engineering 1976
What is Noise (TP-99A) Don O'Dell, Chief Engineer Chittom Equipment Company 1972

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