CTI Bibliography of Technical Papers - Testing

Revised 2017

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Order NumberTitleAuthorDate
Should EDF Switch from EN 14705 Long Term Performance Tests to ATC-105 Short Term Performance Test Christophe Duquennoy, EDF 2017
Abstract: As the owner of 32 large cooling towers, EDF has been performing its own thermal performance acceptance tests during the past 30 years. The company invests a lot in verifying as accurately as possible that a cooling tower reaches the guaranteed year average performance. EDF uses a “long term” test procedure developed by EDF Research department during the 80’s. “Long Term” means data acquisition running from 3 to 9 months which implies specific attention during the whole period and increases the cost of the test. Five years ago EDF started being more involved in CTI ATC-105 revision process. It appears that CTI’s approach could be a way to optimize EDF acceptance tests. EDF launched a comparison study between EDF “long term approach” and ATC-105 “short term approach” based on recent acceptance test data. The paper presents some of the main results that come out of this study.
Wet Bulb Measurement with Psychrometers and Hygrometers Field Test Comparison Marion Floret, EDF DTG and Jared Medlen, McHale & Associates, Inc. 2015
Abstract: Worldwide, the air moisture content entering a cooling tower may be measured either with a relative humidity sensor, a psychrometer, or a capacity hygrometer. Some European standards, dedicated to cooling tower thermal tests such as EN 14705, historically recommend hygrometers for cooling tower acceptance tests for more than 20 years now, while the CTI-ATC 105 (and also 140 ; 150) standard only recommends the use of mechanically-aspired psychrometers. The goal of this paper is to compare the measurement results of these two technologies with CTI-approved psychrometers and commonly used hygrometers for cooling tower tests.
A Reynolds Number Correction for Pitot Measurement Dudley Benton, McHale & Associates 2009
Abstract: The Pitot tube has been the mainstay of flow measurement in cooling towers for decades, but this isn't the only application for velocity probes of this type. Unlike the cooling tower flow, most other applications of these and similar probes consider the Reynolds number-typically at the head of the probe. The correction for Reynolds number in the derived correlations for such probes is iterative, but easily implemented and converges quickly. The information necessary to incorporate a correction for Reynolds number is often collected-but not used-along with the other data when the probe is being calibrated. This paper will explore the efficacy of utilizing a local Reynolds number correction with several Pitot probes and whether or not this actually reduces the overall uncertainty of the final flow measurement.
Affecting Test Uncertainty Benjamin Goddard and Eugene Culver, McHale and Associates 2009
Abstract: The CTI ATC-105 test codes give us guidance to conduct a cooling tower thermal performance test with results having a reasonable uncertainty. A test configuration with a different number of measurements and instrumentation can lead to changes in the uncertainty and the resultant calculated tower capability. This presentation will describe these changes for a project with water-flow measurements in the main line and on individual risers plus installation of additional wet bulb sensors beyond the code required minimum. The significance of sensitivity variation among the test measurement parameters as they related to tower capability is also discussed.
Seismic Qualification of Cooling Towers by Shake-Table Testing Panos G. Papavizas, Baltimore Aircoil Company 2008
Abstract: The International Building Code (IBC) establishes qualification requirements for equipment, such as evaporative cooling equipment, to resist seismic loads. Where certification of seismic resistance is required, the basis for certification must be by analysis, testing, or experience data. For designated seismic system equipment that must remain operable following an earthquake, the most reliable basis for certification is shake-table-testing. The Code-recognized test standard AC156 provides a generic methodology for verifying post-earthquake functionality. This paper will focus on seismic qualification by shake-table testing per AC156's, and make more recommendations specific to evaporative cooling equipment for verification of post-test functionality.
Demonstrating the Effectiveness of Field Testing Evaporative Vapor Condensers Glenn D. Comisac, Baltimore Aircoil Company 2000
Abstract: Determining the thermal capacity of evaporative condensers has long been left to theory, "rules of thumb," or the guarded operations of manufacturers' test laboratories. Now, modern instrumentation and test methods make field-testing of evaporative condensers practical, accurate, and readily available to owners, engineers, and manufacturers alike. Field-testing gives owners the ability to confirm manufacturers' performance guarantees on new equipment and also to determine the current capacity of existing installations. To demonstrate the practicality and accuracy of field-testing, a series of thermal capacity tests were performed in both the controlled environs of a thermal laboratory and at an operating industrial refrigeration facility. This study presents the testing methods used and an analysis of the test results, based on standards from ASHRAE, ARI, and CTI. This series of tests demonstrates that field-testing of evaporative condensers is both practical and accurate. Field-testing can be used to accurately assess the performance of evaporative condensers, new and existing.

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