CTI Bibliography of Technical Papers - Thermal Performance

Revised 2017

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Thermal Performance
Order NumberTitleAuthorDate
Distribution – Distribution – Distribution James L. Willa, Willa, Inc. 2017
Abstract: Proper water distribution is at least three times more important than any other factor in cooling tower performance. We test cooling towers to make sure they are within 1⁰F to 2⁰F of their design. Then, in the next few years the performance quite often drops 10% to 20% because of water maldistribution. This paper covers various methods of detecting poor water distribution, how to improve the distribution, and how to continue successful water flow are included. Also included is a sample calculation of megawatt loss in a thermal electric generation plant and resultant loss of dollars, due to poor water distribution.
Safety In Cooling Tower Maintenance Magose Abraham Eju, Energy Business Total Solutions Limited 2016
Abstract: Maintenance of Cooling Towers usually poses quite a number of occupational/personal safety challenges. For example, the process of removing and replacing packing (fill) in a cooling tower involves working at height in most cases. If not well managed, this exercise can result to accident of falling, leading to injury and/or fatality. In order to avert such safety incidences during Cooling Tower maintenance, a robust safety management system needs to be developed for ever maintenance work. This paper uses a case study to show the various safety hazards that can be associated with maintenance of Cooling Towers, as well as, suggest ways these hazards/risks could be mitigated.
Simulation of Air Flow Distribution and Performance of Cooling Tower Partha Nag, AGM (CENPEEP), NTPC Ltd and Dr. PMV Subba Rao, Mechanical Engineering Department, IIT Delhi 2015
Abstract: A program code developed for prediction of performance of NDCT based on manufacturer's performance curve. Development of a simulation code using CFD for detailed zone wise analysis of air flow and performance of cooling tower is carried out which is the limitation of program code. Development of drift measurement device which is very useful for measurement of drift as well as DBT and WBT of outlet air of cooling tower is carried out. Validation of the simulation using CFD is carried out with experimental result like cold water temperature at bottom, air temperature and air velocity and amount of drift in air at measured plane shows a good accuracy of the present simulation. Development of modified water flow distribution is done which shows improved performance. Off-design performance analysis of cooling tower shows a detailed relationship of performance parameters with operating parameters. Comparison of CFD simulation with program code also shows a good match with design data. This study, along with the analysis of field data is expected to result in concrete recommendation to overcome the field level problem in performance evaluation and thus improved performance.
Preventive Maintenance for Cooling Towers Utilizing Gamma Scanning Technology Paul Chila, Quantum Technical Services, LLC 2014
Abstract: One of the most common questions asked concerning high efficiency cooling towers is “how do we know what is happening inside the fill section?” Quantum Technical Services has developed and patented a gamma scanning technical to address this question directly. Utilizing a gamma scan of the fill section, we calculate the bulk density of all material in the fill. This technology, applied over several scans on a tower over time, has proven to be the most informative and cost effective method to determine the effectiveness of chemical treatment and help guide treatment companies in their treatment strategies.
Good Practices in Cooling Towers: Comparison Between Industrial Audits Salvador Avila Filho and Zara Marques Rodrigues De Jesus, Universidade Federal Da Bahia 2013
Abstract: The integration of cooling Towers with processes and wastewater indicates that a better performance in cooling systems gives benefits for whole production including thermal energy targets. The audit in cooling towers and systems combines thermal behavior analysis, mass/energy balances, field verifications, interviews, and procedures review. The goal of techniques is detecting restrictions to the use of entire capacity of the cooling tower. The comparison between cooling towers’ audit in chemical, metallurgical and petroleum industry shows potential to energy recovery by each technology. This paper presents: method that decrease energy and water losses; and guideline – good practices for cooling tower maintenance.
Impact of Cooling Water Temperature on Plant Performance Magose Abraham Eju, Nigeria Liquefied Natural Gas (NLNG) 2013
Abstract: Cooling water play a very vital role in the performance of a plant in terms of the energy utilization / optimization, production and financial earnings (the bottom-line) of the business. The water temperature sets the temperature levels of a water-cooled plant, process or system and hence, its energy utilization, operating costs and/or savings. It is therefore, important to get the cooling water at the right temperature to ensure optimal performance / efficiency of a plant. This paper uses a real-life problem that occurred at the Nigeria Liquefied Natural Gas plant as a case study to show how the performance of a cooling tower impacts the cooling water temperature and hence the overall performance of a water-cooled plant
Research on Reducing Recirculation Influence of Warm, Saturated Air Discharged from Cooling Towers Liu Zhenyan, Jiangsu Seagull Cooling Tower Co., Ltd 2013
Abstract: The researches show that the recirculation ratio is related to length of cooling tower row, distance between tower rows, tower structure and wind velocity and angle included between long axis of tower row and wind direction. Aim to defects of present calculated modes for cooling tower recirculation, a new formula for the warm, saturated air recirculation is presented through simulate experiments and site running test for cooling tower groups. According to the new formula, the calculated results are accordance with tested values at site. The formula can be used to optimize layout of cooling tower group.
Experimental Methods for Cooling Tower Research Jan Cizek and Michal Stepnicka, Czech Technical University in Prague 2013
Abstract: The laboratory of CTU in Prague has for long been focused on research in the field of cooling technologies. Several experimental stands for evaporative and dry cooling have built with a close collaboration with our partners from the commercial sphere. All of those stands can be run simultaneously in our laboratory, namely a measurement of the effectiveness of fills in the testing cell with usable dimensions of 1.5 x 1.5 x 4 meters, a measurement of nozzle characteristics, measurements of thermodynamic properties of active plume abatement systems, an interferometric (IPI) measurement of the efficiency of drift eliminators, or optical (PIV) measurements of velocity fields near the droplet eliminators and other cooling tower components.
Mathematical and Experimental Modeling of a Rain Zone Lukas Dvorak and Pavol Vitkovic, Czech Technical University in Prague 2013
Abstract: This paper is aimed at the description of theoretical and experimental research in aero- and thermodynamic processes occurring in the stream of moist air flowing pass the rain zone in cooling towers. The aim of this work is based on the presumption of non-uniform log-normal droplets size distribution in the rain zone. The changes in the moving air (such as pressure drop or humidity ratio) occurring in the rain zone are described as a dependence of the flow ratings of the air and water, on the state of both fluids and on the angel between the trajectory of the air and water particles. The results from this research should help with the design and the increase of cooling performance by using non-uniform nozzle grids.
Cooling Tower Modeling Approach Magose Abraham Eju, Nigeria LNG Ltd 2012
Abstract: Various approaches to cooling tower modeling have been used by different authors. Some of these modeling approaches include the work of Lebrun and Aparecida (2002) titled “Cooling Towers – Method and Experimental Validation” which presented a simplified method for analyzing the combined heat and mass transfer phenomena in a cooling tower using Merkel’s theory as the theoretical basis for the model. Braun et al (1989) used the Effectiveness approach in their work titled, “Effectiveness Models for Cooling Tower and Cooling Coils”. Lastly, in the “Toolkit for Primary HVAC System Energy Calculation”, prepared for ASHRAE by Lebrun et al (1999), the model of the counterflow cooling tower was based on the Merkel’s theory with the Lewis number assumed to equal unity. This paper describes the approach that was used by the author in modeling cooling tower as part of the scope of a research study undertaken to improve the thermal performance of cooling towers. Two simulation software tools have been used in the modeling of cooling tower. The challenges encountered are also discussed.
Permanent Magnet Direct Drive Motors: Lessons Learned Robbie McElveen and Bill Martin, Balldor Electric Company 2012
Abstract: In recent years, the authors have presented several papers concerning the use of permanent magnet motors for the direct drive of cooling tower fans. The goal of this paper is to detail how the technology has evolved, communicate lessons learned from field installations and give the reader a practical guide to the installation and use of this type of motor. An in depth case study is presented detailing installation challenges and solutions for a large permanent magnet direct drive motor.
Lee Gillan, Idalex; Paul Glanvill and Dr. Aleksandr Kozlov, Gas Technology Institute Maisotsendo-Cycle Enhanced Cooling Towers 2011
Abstract: Following its successful application in air-conditioning as marketed by the Coolerado Corporation, this document summarizes the potential of the novel thermodynamic cycle, the so-called Maisotsenko-Cycle (“M-Cycle”), as applied to Cooling Tower Design. Through a review of existing methods and technologies, this document discusses how the M-Cycle Enhanced Open and Closed Circuit Cooling Tower designs have the potential in retrofit applications to (1) cool water down to the ambient air dew point temperature and (2) reduce system pressure drop and fan power consumption, with the potential to reduce both installed and operating costs. For readers seeking additional information, appendices discuss the M-Cycle and the corresponding psychrometrics in greater detail.
Improving The Thermal Performance Of Cooling Towers By Conditioning Of Air Magose Abraham Eju, Nigeria Liquefied Natural Gas Limited 2011
Abstract: Up to the present, attempts at improving performance of cooling towers has been focused on the design of the components such as the packing, nozzles, fan, etc. This paper presents an investigation that has been carried out to assess the viability of a new and novel approach by conditioning the entering air to the cooling tower in order to reduce the wet-bulb temperature, which is the principal external parameter that affects performance. The wet-bulb temperature of the air entering the cooling tower determines operating temperature levels throughout a water-cooled plant, process or system. It is very important to have the cold water temperature low enough to exchange heat or to condense vapors at the optimum temperature level. The investigation of performance involved the development of a suite of integrated computer models which were used along with real plant data to assess the performance improvement achievable with the proposed air conditioning system. The results of the analysis indicated the viability of this new and novel approach.
Crossflow Cooling Tower Performance Calculations Robert Fulkerson, Fulkerson & Associates 2008
Abstract: This paper reviews and explains the Zivi Brand method of calculating crossflow cooling tower thermal performance. In addition it presents a mathematical method which can be used to predict the performance of a cooling tower which has a fill height and fill air travel, which is different from the test cell from which the rating data was obtained.
Architectural Enclosure Influences on The Performance of Field Erected Cooling Towers Toby Daley, Composite Cooling Solutions, L.P. 2008
Abstract: Architectural enclosures for cooling towers are not a new phenomena. Ideal clearances are provided by manufacturers to achieve the rated performance. However, understanding and predicting thermal performance impacts when less than ideal clearances are available becomes more complex. This paper will present a study of an architectural louver enclosure and its influence on the performance of the tower when less than ideal clearances are achievable.
Seismic Rated Factory Assembled Evaporative Cooling Equipment Scott Nevins, EVAPCO, Inc. 2007
Abstract: The International Building Code (IBC) is a comprehensive set of regulations addressing the structural design and installation for building systems. As of May 1st, 2006, 47 states and Washington DC have adopted the International Building Code. Compared to previous building codes that solely examined anchorage, the International Building Code addresses anchorage, structural integrity, and operational capability of a component following a seismic event. This paper will focus on the International Building Code as pertains to factory assembled evaporative cooling equipment and emphasize the methodology for determining the applicability of the code to specific projects.
Cooling Towers Work As A System Richard DesJardins, DesJardins Consulting 2006
Abstract: There are two principal concepts that often confuse people that are not familiar with cooling towers and how they operate. One, the cooling tower is a part of a bigger system; It does not set the heat load; the paper will explain how the tower interacts with the system. Two, the cooling tower and its components work as a system. The paper will explain how changes to one part of the tower can affect all the other parts of the tower: Such as selecting the economic size of the tower, affect of changing fill dimensions and type, heights, fan or stack size or type, inlet heights, location of louvers, nozzle type, choice of materials, temperature limits, definition of "tough" and "easy duties", and many more. It will define normal limits for air velocities throughout the tower, water loadings, fan power, and other good practice limitations. It will explain how pressure drop changes performance. It will discuss aftermarket changes that make things worse, not better. Comments will be general, not specific to any one product or type.
Responding to a Cooling Tower Emergency Billy Childers, Aggreko LLC 2006
Abstract: This paper is intended to explore the "typical" path that businesses go down when an unexpected cooling tower failure occurs. Review the time and resources spent in planning and executing a recovery plan. Then review an alternative path that could be chosen to expedite the recovery and avoid any needless losses. The paper will also explore the need for, and the value of having a good executable contingency plan in place.
Guidelines for Successful Cooling Tower Installations for Campus District Energy Systems Frank T Morrison, Baltimore Aircoil Company 2006
Abstract: Water-cooled systems provide many advantages for campus-type district energy systems, including low first cost, low operating cost, and reduced space requirements. Cooling towers are often the forgotten "back-end" of the cooling system, yet play a key role in the operation of the entire system. A well-designed evaporative cooling tower installation is critical to achieving the maximum benefit from the system investment. This paper provides insight into key considerations for these large cooling tower installations, including tower configurations, proper selection, layout, sound, plume, water use, control strategies, and maintenance.
Online Refurbishment of four Large Natural Draft Cooling Towers Alex Dreyer - GEA Aircooled Systems
Gerrit Putter - SASOL Technology
Abstract: Many large power/petrochemical plants have older cooling towers which are in need of major repairs but shutting down these towers will result in large production losses. A project was started in which the water distribution system and the splash pack grids of four existing natural draft cooling towers at a large petrochemical plant were to be replaced without shutting down the water flow to the cooling towers. The water flow to typically 10% of a given tower was shut off after the installation of butterfly valves. The existing packing in this area was then removed and replaced with new high performance slash packing. The work on the first two towers is scheduled for completion in July 2004. Performance tests on these two towers are scheduled for the southern hemisphere summer 2004/2005. The work on the remaining two towers is scheduled for completion at the end of 2005.
Dynamic Load Considerations in Cooling Tower Water Distribution Piping David M. Suptic, David M. Suptic P.E. LLC 2005
Abstract: Cooling tower water distribution piping is typically designed for normal water flow rates and low operating pressures. Actual operating conditions can produce pressure and flow conditions that create significant dynamic piping loads. This paper identifies cooling tower operating practices that may create increased piping loads and provides deep considerations that can help prevent catastrophic pipe failures.
Hybrid Closed-Circuit Cooling Tower Solves a Water Availability Problem David Hutton, Baltimore Aircoil Company 2005
Abstract: The owner/operator of a Canadian air-separation plant had planned to install an open cooling tower for summer heat rejection, and an air-cooled heat exchanger for winter operation, because water for evaporation is unavailable at the plant site in the winter. By taking advantage of hybrid, wet-dry closed-circuit cooling tower technology, the owner is now able to handle the heat rejection requirements with a single piece of equipment that provides the advantages of evaporative cooling in the summer, uses no water in the winter, and consumes less energy and less water than either of the other options.
Supplemental Cooling Billy Childers, Aggreko 2004
Abstract: The paper will cover the benefit and pitfalls of supplemental cooling. 1: Information required and process to determine proper sizing. 2: Location and considerations (recirculation pitfalls). 3: The importance of proper water balancing between existing and supplemental cells/towers. 4: Discuss the pros and cons of supplemental water should be returned within the existing towers basin. 6: Provide drawings and photos of actual installations.
Thorough Inspections Reduce Cooling Tower Mechanical and Performance Risks Terry McCoy - ChemTreat, Inc.
Robert Strandberg - Covanta, Inc.
Abstract: Identification of cooling tower problems prior to resultant failures allows avoidance of unexpected major repair costs. Periodic inspections of mechanical and structural components by knowledgeable personnel are critical in maintaining and performance of the tower. By performing thorough annual inspections as described, corrective action can be initiated and repairs can be budgeted.
Innate Recirculation of Cooling Towers Hector L. Cruz, Bechtel Power Corporation 2003
Abstract: In today's power market there is an overall decrease in available plot area in which to build a power plant. For this reason larger projects are requiring more back-to-back cooling tower configurations. Previous CTI publications show that certain cooling tower configurations and designs are more responsible than others for creating recirculation environments, and indeed, back-to-back configurations create more recirculation than in-line. In-line and back-to-back counter-flow configurations makeup the bulk of new cooling tower installations. However, this report deals exclusively with back-to-back counter-flow cooling towers. It will also develop 1) the upper limit for design variables that create recirculation, and 2) answer which variables have a greater affect on the cooling towers' thermal performance, auxiliary power, and cost.
Wireless Condition Monitoring of Industrial Cooling Towers. Buddy Lee, MAARS, Inc. 2002
Abstract: A new method of wireless condition monitoring for cooling tower applications will be presented. The development of Spread Spectrum communications technology now makes real-time vibration and process analysis available over plant ethernet or the internet. Remote diagnostics of cooling tower condition may be implemented at low cost using off the shelf components.
A Temporary Cooling Tower CAN Work For You. Billy Childers, Aggreko, Inc. 2002
Abstract: Temporary cooling towers allow for a contingency plan of the heart of the plant that will save time and money in the event of an unexpected loss. They provide increased worker safety during reconstruction as well as protecting the environment and "keeping the lights on" at the power plant. The plant can "try before you buy" to provide undisputable evidence of the impact of cooler water. Add to all of this the ability to maintain full production during the summer heat and one can see how a temporary system will solve plant worries and increase profits.
Vibration Control for Cooling Towers. Robert Simmons, Amber/Booth Company 2002
Abstract: Cooling towers can be a major source of objectionable vibration and vibration induced noise in buildings. This presentation will examine vibration control issues for cooling towers, why vibration from cooling towers is a problem, how to isolate the vibration, and some practical installation guidelines will be discussed.
Network Analysis Helps Increase Cooling System Capacity. Sushil Aggarwal, Fluro Daniel Inc. 2002
Abstract: A planned refinery expansion required 1500 GPM of additional cooling water. The refinery has undergone several expansions in the past where either the capacity of existing units increased or new processing units were added. The original cooling water system was straining to meet the increasing demands placed on it. Further the pressure loss in the piping had increased over time due to settlement of dirt and scaling. While the cooling tower had additional thermal capacity, the circulation pumps and distribution piping system were hydraulically limited. Alternatives were explored to avoid installing additional circulation pumps and dedicated supply and return piping for the new process unit. A hydraulic network analysis helped in identifying pinch points in the large piping network with over 120 pipe segments and more than 18 process units. A solution to supply the new unit without installing new pumps and dedicated headers was identified by reducing flow resistance in the pinch points with significant cost savings.
On-Line Performance Monitoring of the 1300 MW Natural Draft Cooling Towers on American Electric Power's General James M. Gavin Plant Frank L. Michell, Dan H Drew American Electric Power 1997
Abstract: American Electric Power's past and current approach to determining and monitoring performance of natural draft cooling towers on coal fired generating units from 260-1300MW size will be discussed in the paper. The paper will focus on the Gavin Plant on-line performance monitoring system approach with prior testing activities on AEP System cooling towers included from a historical perspective.
Enhancing Tower Performance Using Non-Uniform Water Distribution Adriaan J. de Villiers, Peter B. Bosman, Knight Piesold Energy 1996
Abstract: The paper will examine the effects of special variations of L/G within a cooling tower, on the overall thermal performance of the tower. Air temperature profiles above the fill, resulting from non-uniform water distribution profiles will be presented. Theoretical vs. actual results for the return water temperature will be compared.
Tower Demolition safety Techniques For The 90's Michael F. Talley & John Elrod Martin Marietta Utility Services, Inc. 1995
Abstract: In 1987, a comprehensive reliability study was made to ascertain the ability of the present 42-year-old recirculating water system to meet the anticipated load demand through the year 2010. The study determined that the deterioration of the cooling tower over the years necessitated replacement of the structures from the ground up. This project posed many hazards related to worker safety. This paper will deal with the safety techniques used during the project. Portions of the paper will deal with Personal Protection Equipment, fall protection, and lifting and rigging methods used during the demolition of the cooling tower.
Computerized Simulation of Closed Circuit Cooling Tower With Parallel and Counterflow Spray Water-Air Flow Design Branislav Korenic, Ph.D., Aircoil Company 1995
Abstract: An exact analytic method for evaluating heat and mass transfer in closed circuit cooling towers, previously developed by the author, has been expanded and revised to provide a computerized means to predict the thermal performance and determine the associated energy requirements for a specified tower design. The validity of the model has been verified and fine-tuned by extensive laboratory testing. After a brief overview of the analytical model, it is demonstrated how this model can be effectively applied to both counterflow and parallel flow spray water-air flow arrangements in actual tower designs. The main computer program options are then discussed, with emphasis on the iterative nature of the solution. Finally, the temperature profiles of the process fluid, spray water, and air wet bulb temperature are presented and discussed for both flow arrangements. An overview of the laboratory test program is also presented. In summary, this paper reports on the successful combination of the latest state-of the-art analytical procedures with advanced programming techniques and extensive laboratory testing to create a workable and powerful engineering software package for evaluating the thermal performance of large closed circuit cooling towers.
Using The EPRI Test Data to Verify a More Accurate Method of Predicting Cooling Tower Performance (TP-92-01) Richard J. DesJardins, DesJardins and Associates 1992
Abstract: Cooling tower performance test data published by EPRI and others is re-examined using a full compliment of modifications suggested by others to the standard Merkel method of analysis. The purpose of the paper is to verify a theoretical way of eliminating the need to use an empirical "hot water correction factor" to obtain accurate cooling tower performance predictions. Data analysis is graphically presented for both the standard CTI method and the modified "off-set" method to demonstrate the significant improvements that can be made.
A More Nearly Exact Representation of Cooling Tower Theory (TP-91-02) Allen E. Feltzin, Airco Industrial Gases/The BOC Group, Dudley Benton, Tennessee Valley Authority 1991
Abstract: Merkel theory relied on several basic assumptions to simplify the mathematical calculations involved in the determination on KaV (cooling tower demand). Sixty-five years later, computers and numerical methods allow for more precise determinations. A description of the history and current status of this development is presented. Necessary formulas and computational methods are presented in their entirety.
Development of Cooling Tower Performance Impacts on Utility and Process Plants (TP-91-07) Ken Quigley, Ecodyne Cooling Tower Services and Karl Wilber Research Cottrell Companies 1991
Abstract: The development of accurate and representative cooling tower performance penalties is critical to the optimization of cooling systems design and the assessment of associated performance penalties. This paper provides economic penalties for typical fossil power plants. Additionally, a cross section of process industry plants are reviewed in the terms of the impact of the cooling tower return temperatures on recovered products. Finally, the issue of fan power and pumping head penalties will be revisited with the objective of assessing total tower economic evaluation as well as systems optimization.
Cooling Water Operational Experiences at an Ammonia Plant (TP-89-17) Guy A. Crucil & Lawrence Aytes Nalco Chemical Company, and Paul A. Lamar, Farmland Industries, Inc. 1989
Abstract: With the increasing pressures placed on various chemical plants to limit effluent constituents, a greater emphasis has been placed on the cooling tower blowdown. Not only is the discharge concern placed on the commonly used heavy metal corrosion inhibitors such as chromate and zinc, but on other components as well such as ammonia. A review of cooling tower operational experiences is presented to illustrate one plant's method of minimizing the effluent discharge while observing excellent corrosion, scale, and microbiological control in their cooling water systems.
Exhaust Steam Condensing With an Evaporative Condenser (TP-88-01) Lindsay L. Haman, P.E., Baltimore Aircoil Company, David Hutton, P.E., BAC-Pritchard Inc. 1988
Abstract: Presents and discusses the use of an evaporative steam condenser system in lieu of the more conventional steam surface condenser-circulating water-evaporative cooling tower system for small to medium steam power applications. Evaporative condensers have been used for many years in the refrigeration, process and air conditioning industry. Through modifications to the condensing coils to accommodate the low-density steam and entrained non-condensable gases, they can be used economically with condensing steam turbines in co-generation and waste heat recovery plants.
Artificial Intelligence for Operation of a Crossflow Mechanical Draft Cooling Tower (TP-88-17) Benjamin R. Crocker & David E. Wheeler, Environmental Systems Corporation, Gerald L. Mroczkowski & Richard E. Steiner, Wisconsin Public Servic 1988
Abstract: Paper describes a data acquisition/monitoring system that provides multiple levels of icing alarm for a crossflow mechanical draft-cooling tower. System software compares the current operating status to the optimum operating status and recommends how many fans, cells, pumps, etc., to operate in order to provide the best net plant heat rate.
An Operations History of W.A. Parish Units #7 & #8 Main Cooling Towers and Associated Systems (TP-86-02) Mary Brakhage Fuglaar, Houston Lighting & Power Company 1986
Abstract: The limited cooling capacity of the HL&P W.A. Parish lake made the construction of cooling towers essential with the last two generating units. The operations history of these two large, round, concrete cooling towers is reviewed. In addition to comparing their design similarities and differences, specific areas are discussed, including the dual sources of makeup water and blowdown control.
Status Report: Cooling Tower Performance Project (TP-86-03) John A. Bartz & Wayne C. Micheletti, EPRI and Margaret C. McPhail, Houston Lighting & Power 1986
Abstract: The current status of the EPRI Cooling Tower Performance Test Facility Project, described at the 1984 CTI Annual Conference, is reported. Operating experience and test results from the Small Scale Test Facility and full-scale facilities at Houston Light & Power stations are presented. Results from computer codes to predict tower performance, including one developed and validated in Europe, are included. Elimination of the need for a hot water temperature correction by use of these codes is explained. Description of a project expansion is provided, which includes a study of fill degradation plus improved water and airflow rate measurement techniques aimed at more accurate heat balances. In addition, developmental fill configuration proposed for performance tests are described.
Activation of a New Tower Facility (TP-86-12) W.D. Lansford, P.E., Arnold Engineering Development Ctr. 1986
Abstract: The activation of a new heat exchanger, pipeline and components, and cooling tower systems, can present problems not found in modifications or additions to existing systems. This paper will address some of the unexpected events that surfaced during activation of the cooling tower systems, piping, and valving and the steps taken to correct the occurrences.
Application of Uncertainty Analysis to Cooling Tower Thermal Performance Tests (TP-86-15) John G. Yost & David E. Wheeler Environmental Systmes Corp. 1986
Abstract: The Cooling Tower Institute has adopted much needed guidelines for providing meaningful estimates of measurement uncertainty and the propagation of these uncertainties into the determination of cooling tower capability. Uncertainty analyses can be useful in determining test validation and compliance with contractual agreements. This paper addresses actual and desired uncertainties associated with specific test parameters. It addresses how these errors propagate into the calculation of cooling tower capability uncertainty. Specific examples are given based on multiple hours of test data acquired on both natural draft (crossflow and counterflow) and mechanical draft (rectangular and circular) cooling towers. The paper will show how significant uncertainty is calculated versus predicted capability in natural draft cooling towers can occur. Guidelines for reducing uncertainty are provided for mechanical and natural draft towers.
Influence of air and Water Temperature on Fill Characteristics Curve (TP-85-08) Marcel R. LeFevre, MRL Corporation 1985
Abstract: In a paper presented at the 1984 Annual CTI Meeting, the author reviewed the Merkel theory approximations and suggested simple methods to eliminate them in order to reduce the influence of temperature on the demand curve. He indicated that a second influence existed on the fill characteristic curve side. This paper addresses this question in detail and compares theory with actual test results, answering many of the questions left open by the first paper.
Application of Upspray Type Water Distribution Systems in Cooling Towers (TP-85-09) H. Peter Fay & Gerhard Hesse, GEA Power Cooling Systems, Inc. 1985
Abstract: Thermal and hydraulic characteristics of the up-spray system; performance verification; effects on tower configuration and fill; operational and maintenance characteristics.
EPRI Research on Cooling Tower Performance (TP-84-01) John A. Bartz & Wayne C. Micheletti, Electric Power Research Institute 1984
Abstract: One of the primary goals of EPRI's Heat Waste and Water Management Program is to improve the ability of the utility industry to predict and test the performance of power plant cooling systems. The object of this work is to develop uniform methods that will aid the industry in specifying cooling systems, evaluating bids, performing retrofitting studies, and testing system thermal performance. Current work includes research on once-through systems, cooling ponds and lakes, and wet and dry cooling towers. This paper describes research on conventional evaporative cooling towers. The effort includes the construction of a laboratory-scale fill test facility and testing of promising counter flow and cross flow fill configurations for thermal and hydraulic performance at both laboratory scale and full scale.
Integration of the Cooling Tower in the Chemical Processing Plant (TP-84-07) W. v.L. Campagne & Lane J. McDonough, Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation 1984
Abstract: For too long the Chemical Processing Industry has neglected the effect of ambient air on total energy consumption. Cooling water plays an important role in energy management. The Paper outlines several operating considerations to provide a more energy efficient system, as well as the information needed to determine the optimum point of operation.
Recirculation and Interference Characteristics of Circular Mechanical Draft Cooling Towers (TP-84-13) John W. Cooper, Jr., Zurn Industries, Inc. 1984
Abstract: The entrainment of hot moist air from a cooling tower into the tower inlet air decreases both overall tower and plant performance. This study characterizes recirculation on a circular mechanical draft-cooling tower. Data taken on this tower are compared to data from similar tests on rectangular mechanical draft cooling towers in this paper.
Eliminating the Merkel Theory Approximations -- Can it Replace the Empirical "Temperature Correction Factor"? (TP-84-18) Marcel R. LeFevre, MRL Corporation 1984
Abstract: The Merkel Theory was published in 1925 and demonstrated that heat transfer in evaporative cooling tower was approximately proportional to a difference of enthalpies. Approximations of the theory are very large, mainly when water temperatures are high. This paper presents a simple method to eliminate Merkel's Theory approximations. It is practically as simple to use as the present Merkel Theory, and existing data can still be used with simple corrections. Hopefully this can be the base for a new future standard of the cooling tower industry.
The Use of the CTI Blue Book at Altitude (TP269A) Robert Fulkerson, Cooling Technology Corporation 1983
Abstract: This paper discusses methods to be utilized when using the CTI BlueBook at any altitude.
Evaporative Cooling Performance Evaluation (TP-253A) Larry D. Howlett, Heat Transfer & Mechanical Design 1982
Abstract: A model is presented which predicts the performance of an evaporative cooling system at other than the tested operation point. The model is based upon an empirical correlation for convection heat transfer and a proposed form for this correlation is introduced.
Effect of Altitude on Cooling Tower Design and Testing (TP-251A) George E. McKee, Cooling Technology Corporation 1982
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to show why altitude is an important factor that should be taken into consideration when designing or testing a tower. Information will also be presented which should be helpful in doing calculations for elevations other than sea level. Only counterflow towers will be discussed in this paper because of the ease in performing the calculations but the principles discussed also apply to crossflow towers.
Unique Systematic Approach Helps Conquer Multiple Cooling System Problems (TP-230A) Thomas D. Frey, Union Carbide Corporation and Albert D. Owens Calgon Corporation 1981
Abstract: A computer program was used to select a treatment program that eliminated or reduced problems associated with changing from zinc-chromate treatment and makeup water source.
A Review of Present and Recently Proposed Methods for Thermal Evaluation of Atmospheric Water Cooling Equipment (TP224A) Glenn F. Hallett, Fluor Engineers and Constructors, Inc. 1980
Abstract: Recent methods for predicting and evaluating tower performance will be discussed including spray cooling water systems. Although dimensional analysis techniques for heat and mass transfer are used, requirements for this solution are not always met. Proposed and present methods are compared.
Common Misconceptions Concerning Cooling Tower Performance (TP-225A) James L. Willa & John C. Campbell, Lilie-Hoffmann Cooling Towers, Inc. 1980
Abstract: This paper demonstrates rather pointedly that cooling tower performance and operation is not so straightforwardly simple as it many times is thought to be. These misconceptions or "Old Cooling Tower Tales" can cost you money in all phases of dealing with cooling towers.
An Evaluation of Schemes for the Prediction of Recirculation on Crossflow Rectangular Mechanical Draft Cooling Towers (TP-195A) R.D. Moore, D.E. Wheeler, K.R. Wilber & A.E. Johnson, Environmental Systems Corp. 1979
Handling Upsets in Cooling Water Systems (TP-196A) J.R. Townsend, Drew Chemical Corporation 1979
Biofilm Development and Destruction in Turbulent Flow (TP-204A) W.G. Characklis, Rice University 1979
Evaporative Hat Removal in Wet Cooling Towers (TP-209A) Thomas E. Eaton, P.E., University of Kentucky 1979
Next Year's Profits...From Your Cooling Tower (TP-199A) C.J. McCann & Dennis Moran, Tower Performance, Inc. 1979
Improving Condenser Cleanliness by Using a Dispersant to Supplement Chlorination at a Nuclear Plant (TP-189A) J.R. Sipp, Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station, Jeff R. Townsend, Drew Chemical Corp. 1978
Review of Cooling Tower Calculation (TP-194A) Walter Gloyer, Consultant 1978
Emergency Shutdown Cooling Towers Considerations in the Evolution of an Optimum Tower Design (TP-152A) Stuart M. Klein, United Engineers & Constructors, Inc. 1976
A Blueprint for the Preparation of Crossflow Cooling Tower Characteristic Curves (TP-146A) Neil W. Kelly, Neil W. Kelly and Associates 1976
Proper Cooling Tower Operation Makes Money (TP-141A) James L. Willa, Lilie-Hoffmann 1975
The Cooling Tower - Waste Heat Superstar (TP-121A) Peter M. Phelps, Phelps Engineering, Inc. 1974
Estimating Cooling Tower Costs Performance - A Tool for Determining the Impact on the Hydro-Thermal Program (TP-97A) Emoy H. Hall, Bonneville Power Administration 1972
Off-Peak Cooling With Thermocycle (TP-70A) Robert Reynolds, York Division Borg-Warner Corporation 1969
Missapplication and Incorrect Location of Cooling Towers (TP-73A) Robert S. Jones, Francis Assoc. 1969
Novel Cooling Tower Control System (TP-48A) H. Feitler & C.R. Townsend, Magna Corporation 1968
A Report on In-Place Spray Treatment of Cooling Towers at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (TP-20A) L.C. Burkhalter, Union Carbide Corporation 1967
Control of Fog From Cooling Towers (TP-30A) J.R. Buss, Monsanto Company 1967
The Application of Computer Techniques to the Selection and Evaluation of Water Cooling Tower (TP-29A) Neil W. Kelly, Pritchard Products Corporation 1967
Effect of Altitude on Cooling Tower Rating and Performance (TPR-125) Thomas H. Hamilton 1962
Sizing Cooling Towers to Optimize Plant Performance (TP218A) S.D. Clark, Union Carbide Corp. 1962

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Cooling Technology Institute