CTI Bibliography of Technical Papers - Tower Testing

Revised 2008

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Tower Testing
Order NumberTitleAuthorDate
A Simplified Method to Evaluate Cooling Tower and Condenser Performance Using the CTI ToolKit Luc De Backer and Natasha Peterson, Bechtel 2008
Abstract: A simple mathematical method will be proposed to estimate the cooling tower performance at off-design ambient conditions. The cooling tower data will be used as a starting point and the CTI toolkit will be used to calculate psychrometric properties and the Merkel number at off-design conditions to calculate the temperature of the cold water leaving the cooling tower using the slop of the cooling tower characteristic curve. By applying first principles and straightforward relationships for condensers, the condenser performance at off-design conditions can be predicted.
Flow Measurement and All That Jazz Mark S. Huber and Robert P. Miller, Baltimore Aircoil Company 2003
Abstract: Flow measurement is the single most critical parameter in cooling tower testing, yet in most instances, only one measurement is taken over the course of the test and all to often that is at a less than ideal location. In this study, a controlled environment has been created in which to compare the flow measurements obtained with different instruments under several conditions including ideal, significantly less than ideal, and the unwritten rule of 10D upstream and 5D downstream. The three specific "significantly less than ideal" conditions include a single elbow, a double ell in two distinct planes, and a butterfly valve, fully open and partially closed. The instruments will include a Simplex Pitot tube, a Simplex tube with a modified Fechheimer tip, and Annubar, and insertable turbine meter, an insertable mag meter, two transit time ultra-sonic meters, and possibly others. Each meter at each location will be checked at three flow rates, 3 fps, 7 fps, and 11 fps and compared to a Magmeter with calibration traceable to NIST, permanently installed in the same loop at an "ideal" location. In the paper, the measurements obtained by each type meter at each position and at each flow rate will be tabulated, compared, and conclusions discussed, particularly as they may pertain to cooling tower testing.
Analysis of Thermal Performance Test Data of Large Cooling Towers Using CTI ToolKit Software. Frank Michell, American Electric Power 2002
Abstract: The paper will outline procedures and practices followed to complete thermal performance tests on large utility cooling towers in accordance with the provisions of the new CTI ATC-105 Acceptance Test Code. Case studies of actual tests on crossflow and counterflow cooling towers with the results determined using the CTI ToolKit Software would be included in the paper. The presentation will incorporate a live demonstration using the software to evaluate the test data to calculate tower capability.
Circulating Water Flow Measurements - A Study Eugene D. Culver, Ceramic Cooling Tower Corporation 2001
Abstract: This study compares the effect that measurement locationhas on flow determination using different measurement techniques. Three different flow measurement techniques used are the Pitot tube, a transit time sonic flow meter and a dyedilution technique. Measurements are taken in the main header, the risers close after flow disturbances, and in the risers again after eight diameters of straight run. The goal of this study is to demonstrate that worthwhile flow determinationsrequire a system design having suitable measurement access locations with adequate piping runs.
A New Look at Recirculation Analysis Including Measure of a 50 Cell Cooling Tower Michel Monjoie & Franz Bouton
Hamon Thermal Europe
2000
Abstract: The Bang-Pakong cooling tower in Thailand was designed to cool 1.8 Million GPM of water. The cooling tower had 74 cells arranged in 6 modules along the river. Four of these modules, arranged in two rows, were closed one to the others. Such layout provides recirculation effect. The paper presents the recirculation measurements, the recirculation thermal effect on performance and some guidelines for cooling tower design taking their circulation into consideration.
Characterization of Drift Rates and Drift Droplet Distribution for Mechanical Draft Cooling Towers Jack R. Missimer, David Wheeler Power Generation Technologies 1997
Abstract: The results of over 50-drift test are drawn together to provide insight into the appropriate characterizations of both drift droplet distribution on mechanical draft cooling towers. Examination of the results from both high efficiency and low efficiency drift eliminators is included.
Accuracy and Linearity of Diamond Shaped Averaging Pilot Tubes Susan Mahoney, Dieterich Standard 1997
Abstract: Water flow measurement is a critical factor in the acceptance testing of cooling towers. As described in previous technical papers, measurement using pitot tubes another velocity type probes is controversial. This paper describes the consistency and accuracy of using a diamond shaped averaging pitot tube technology for acceptance testing in water flow measurement. The paper is based on data collected at an actual cooling tower test, testing at a major cooling tower manufacturer, and supporting test data from Alden Research Laboratories. The focus is accuracy and linearity of flow measurement over wide velocity ranges. Issues of accurate flow measurement in short straight installations, the benefits of averaging the flow profile, and advantages of permanent cooling tower water flow monitoring will be shown.
Testing Procedures for Wet/Dry Plume Abatement Cooling Towers Michel Monjoie & Jean-Pierre Libert, Hamon Sobelco 1994
Abstract: For several years many cooling towers have been designed with a plume abatement device to reduce or eliminate plume formation under some weather conditions (mainly in winter). The combination wet/dry tower produces the desirable invisible plume of the dry cooling tower while maintaining the high thermal efficiency of the wet cooling tower. This paper describes the testing of wet/dry plume abatement cooling towers to verify performance under the manufacturer's guarantee. The guarantee is expressed as a maximum plume relative humidity as a function of the cooling tower working parameters (flow, range, inlet air temperature and humidity).
Dye Dilution Flow Rate Measurements for Cooling Towers (TP-92-11) Jack R. Missimer, Ph.D., P.E. Environmental Systems Corp. 1992
Abstract: Dye dilution flow rate measurements are being used to measure large cooling tower circulating water flow rates. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the techniques when compared with other flow rate measurement techniques.
Calibration Characteristics of a Simplex Pitot-Static Probe and Five Alternative Velocity Probes (TP-92-15) R.N. Partghasarathy, Robert Ettema & V.C. Patel, Iowa Institute of Hydraulic Research 1992
Abstract: Calibration tests conducted in a towing tank and a rectangular duct indicated that the calibration coefficient of a Simplex pitot-static probe was significantly affected by flow velocity (Reynolds number), tube vibration and wall-proximity. The performance of five designs of pressure-difference velocity probes, as alternates to replace the Simplex probes, were tested using a wind tunnel and a towing tank. An effective replacement probe for the Simplex design is suggested.
Ultimate Heat Sink Thermal Performance Test at the River Bend Station (TP-89-04) T.P. Anthony, Gulf States Utilities J.R. Salmon, Stone & Webster Engineering, John G. Yost, P.E. Environmental Systems Corp. 1989
Abstract: This paper describes the work associated with planning, preparations, and executionof these tests. This non-conventional design tower would serve as the ultimate heat sink for the reactor plant following a postulated design basis accident. A temporary heat source was used, consisting of the three package boilers and associated equipment to supply steam to two temporary heat exchangers. The basin water was circulated through temporary piping to the heat exchangers and back through temporary piping to the heat exchangers and back through the tower frill, cooling the water before entering the basin. This was a unique test, that required special planning preparations, execution, and interface with an operational nuclear plant.
Field Measurements of Chiller Heat Transfer Coefficients (TP-84-08) Levin G. Armwood, P.E., Mogul Division/The Dexter Corporation 1984
Abstract: Field measurements can be made to determine the heat transfer coefficient of operating chiller condensers. The heat transfer coefficient can be used to identify condenser fouling, a major cause of increased energy usage in chiller systems. Case studies are used to show how heat transfer coefficients can be used to detect fouling of condensers and the economic impact of condenser fouling on chiller operation.
Determination of Fan Flow and Water Rate Adjustment for Off-Design Cooling Tower Tests John M. Vance, Union Carbide Corporation 1984
Abstract: The determination of the performance of a mechanical draft-cooling tower requires that the air mass flow through the tower be known. Since this flow is not measured, it has been customary to use the manufacturer's design airflow and adjust it by the on-third power of the ratio of the design fan horsepower to test fan horsepower. This basic adjustment is inadequate for today's technology and need to be improved. The most nearly correct approximation of air flow through a tower can be obtained by incrementally moving through the tower from air inlet to outlet while calculating mass flows, energy balances, and pressure drops for each increment and then utilizing fan curves to determine volumetric and mass flows. This procedure would account for changes in hair humidity and density through the tower, evaporation of water, and effect of water rate on air pressure drop, and changes in fan characteristics. Unfortunately, this is an interactive numerical process that requires considerable computer capabilities, a data bank of the pressure drop characteristics of tower components, and fan characteristics. These type calculations maybe within the capabilities of all in the near future, but for now a more elementary approach is recommended, using a calculator. This approach depends on assumptions that are acceptable if the tower test is conducted within CTI code requirements. The fan must be considered a constant suction volume blower for a given blade pitch. The total pressure at the fan, a function of volumetric flow, must be assumed to be unaffected by other considerations and the fan horsepower must be assumed to change only as mass flow and wet air density changes.
Examination of Cooling Tower Air Flow Measurement Techniques and Their Utility in Cooling Tower Performance Determinations (TP-84-15) Dave Wheeler, Karl Wilber & Greg Starnes, Environmental Systems Corporation 1984
Abstract: There is currently no published test code that governs the performance testing of large wet cooling tower fans. ASME's Performance Test Code 11 Committee is in the process of developing a test code aimed primarily at testing in a dry environment. This paper discusses the PTC-11 Code and compares its requirements with measurement techniques currently being used in the moist environment of a wet cooling tower fan.
Design and Operation of Remote Reading Wet Bulb Instruments With Thermistor Temperature Sensors (TP-266A) Thomas E. Weast, Midwest Research Institute 1983
Abstract: A remote reading system consisting of standard CTI wet bulb instruments, auxiliary water reservoirs, adjustable mounting brackets, and linear thermister temperature sensors with digital read out was developed by CTI's test representative. This system was used to obtain a matrix of up to 24 inlet wet bulb temperatures when performing CTI tests on towers with large air inlets during the 1982 test season.
Fluid Flow Measurement and Energy Savings (TP-227A) Norman L. Alston, Dieterich Standard Corporation 1981
Abstract: This paper will help to show the need and importance of flow measurement around a cooling tower and the different types of flow measurement devices to choose from that can provide very acceptable measurement accuracy.
Evaluation of Cooling Tower Test Accuracy (TP-235A) Marcel R. LeFevre, MRL Corp. 1981
Abstract: The paper reviews existing methods to indicate testing accuracy and attempts to establish a detailed method application to cooling tower testing.
ATC-105 Test Accuracy at Off-Design Conditions (TP-241A) Robert D. Fulkerson, Cooling Technology Corporation 1981
Abstract: This paper is a discussion of the mathematical accuracy of the CTI Test Code ATC-105 test evaluation method.
The Application of Acoustic Flowmeters to Pipeline Flowrate Measurement (T-208A) Francis C. Lowell, Jr., O.R.E., Inc. 1979
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Water Flow Measurement in Large Pipes and Conduits (TP-182A) John P. Fath, Fischer & Porter Company 1978
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Field Examination of Cooling Tower Testing Methodology (TP-163A) Karl R. Wilber, Environmental Systems Corporation, John S. Maulbetsch, Electric Power Research Institute 1977
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CTI Water Cooling Tower Thermal Performance - Testing Procedures and Instrumentations (TP-174A) C.K. Doll, Midwest Research Institute 1977
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Cooling Tower Test Accuracy (TP-49A) W.J.Hoffmann, Jr. & James L. Willa, Lilie Hoffmann Cooling Towers, Inc. 1968
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Water Flow Measurement in Field Tests of Cooling Towers (TP-3A) Kent J. Bordelon, Cooling Tower 1963
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Psychrometry (TP-1A) James L. Willa, Cooling Tower Institute 1961
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