CTI Bibliography of Technical Papers - Treatment Control

Revised 2017

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Treatment Control
Order NumberTitleAuthorDate
Modeling Scale Inhibitor Upper Limits: In Search of Synergy Robert J. Ferguson, French Creek Software, Inc. 2017
Abstract: Existing models for calculating the minimum effective dosage for scale control have been applied to industrial and oil field scale control treatment optimization since the 1970s. Standard correlations are routinely used in developing the models. The models typically apply to a single inhibitor. There is a driving force limit for each inhibitor, above which scale control cannot be achieved regardless of the inhibitor dosage. Knowing the upper limit is critical for selecting the optimum treatment program and in specifying control limits for a system such as an open recirculating cooling tower or membrane system. Limits for individual inhibitors have been well documented. Studies have been conducted to determine the impact of blending inhibitors on the upper driving force limit. Upper driving force limits, as expressed by calcite saturation ratio, were measured for calcium carbonate inhibition by individual inhibitors and combinations. Results were evaluated and blends found to –increase the upper limit above that of either inhibitor when applied alone (synergism), -decrease the upper limit (antagonism or competitive inhibition), or –provide an upper limit in between that of the individual inhibitors (equivalent efficacy). Test methods, data, and correlations are presented and discussed with respect to mechanisms.
PolyVinyl Chloride Use in Cooling Towers Ken Mortensen and Robert Petterson, SPX Cooling Technologies 2016
Abstract: PVC is a unique material in cooling tower history. It has been used for many and varied components. It has been used for a long time in the cooling tower business. PVC’s properties and features make it well suited for operating evaporative cooling equipment. What material properties are important to proper application? What are its limitations? These questions will be explored in this paper.
Calcium Removal from Cooling Tower Water by Ion Exchange Patrick Littlejohn, PhD, David Kratochvil, PhD and Alex West, BioteQ Environmental Technologies 2014
Abstract: Make-up waters with elevated calcium hardness tend to increase the risk of scaling in circulating cooling systems where the concentration of calcium increases through higher Cycles of Concentration (COC). To prevent calcium scaling, cooling towers control the calcium concentration in circulating loops by adjusting the volume of liquid blow-down. In cases where calcium is the blow-down determining constituent, the build-up of calcium can severely limit the extent of water re-use. With increased water scarcity in many areas of the SE USA, the need to reduce water consumption in cooling towers by increasing the COC is of significant importance. An ion exchange based technology has been developed to selectively remove calcium from aqueous streams effectively eliminating calcium as the limiting constituent for COC. A case study will be presented where calcium is the limiting constituent for COC and the technology is shown to significantly reduce water consumption by increasing the COC.
CooliSS: A Modeling Tool for Scaling Prediction in Condenser Cooling Circuits with Cooling Towers Cyril Marconnet, EDT – Ceidre 2014
Abstract: One of the main issues of condenser open recirculating cooling systems is scaling. This can have high economic consequences due to a loss of thermal exchange, and increase of maintenance costs and potentially plant shutdown. To tackle this problem, EDF, which operates 30 condenser open cooling circuits in nuclear power plants in France, has developed a modeling computer program called CooliSS, to help optimize chemical treatment. CooliSS is based on a chemical mass balance model and can provide previsions of cooling water chemistry evolution within the cooling circuit, as a function of operating conditions. The software was developed under the open source environment Scilab/Xcos. Phreeqc is used for the calculation of water chemistry in each component of the circuit (chemical speciation, pH and saturation index calculation, etc.). The model is based on theoretical considerations. A case study will be presented in this paper.
Optimizing Treatment Cost Performance Robert J Ferguson, French Creek Software 2011
Abstract: Optimizing the cost performance of treatments in cooling systems requires the use of models that calculate the minimum effective dosage of scale and/or corrosion inhibitors and blends. This paper describes the theory, development, and applications of performance models to optimizing and comparing treatments in open recirculating cooling systems. The impact of blending inhibitors on dosage is described. Treatment and model limitations are also discussed.
Physical Water Treatment Utilized In Food Manufacturing And Distribution David McLachlan, Fluid Treatment Solutions, Inc. 2010
Abstract: A technical review of the fundamentals of high voltage PWT (Physical Water Treatment) systems will be presented. The thermodynamics and surface phenomena associated with the water chemistry in scale formation will be delineated. Address the connection between the scientific hypotheses and field results found in the food industries. These cooling towers will cover a wide range of locations (AZ, KS, MO and FL) and feed water chemistries.
A Novel Deposit Monitoring Technique for Industrial Cooling Water And Process Systems Daniel M. Cicero, Nalco Company 2010
Abstract: In hard waters, high cycle operation risks mineral scale formation. Operating a cooling system at lower cycles reduces the risk of scale formation, but increases operating costs. Basing the concentration ratio set-point on average or bulk water conditions risks missing localized high stress conditions. The result: scaling and loss of heat exchange capacity in critical processes. Recent advances in quartz crystal microbalance technology provide valuable insight into the effects of temperature, water chemistry and operational changes. By measuring the formation of scale, in situ, at various, pre-selected temperatures, the actual scale forming tendencies of a water can be quantified in terms of deposit weight. This paper discusses quartz crystal microbalance technology and its use. Data from field evaluations will be presented.
Material Balance Chemical Control and Information Systems for Cooling Water Treatment Charles Kuhfeldt, Ashland; Drew Industrial 2007
Abstract: Control of water treatment chemistry utilizing instrument measurement of system water flow and cycles of concentration provides precise control of chemical additives. The chemical testing performed then becomes a check on the control, rather than a primary control output. On-line chemical analysis is not needed. Statistical analysis of data proves the control capability is excellent. Opportunities exist to utilize existing instrumentation in some cases along with new measurements to synthesize systems that are effective, economical and fully connected with today's information technology.
Finally, an Alternative to Azoles Eric Ward and Al L. Foster, Alco Chemical 2005
Abstract: Introducing a new breed of yellow metal corrosion inhibitor that will revolutionize the way cooling towers are treated. This new inhibitor forms a protective film on the metal surface hat is unequaled in its resistance to breakdown. The film is so durable that it is capable of maintaining corrosion protection for weeks without the presence of residual inhibitor in solution (a feat that azoles are incapable of achieving). This paper will present detailed studies that compare the new inhibitor to azoles, demonstrating how the advantages of the new inhibitor will provide cost, environmental, and application benefits to the user.
Development of an On-site Hypobromite Generator Timothy Keister, ProChemTech International, Inc. 2004
Abstract: Existing technology for biological control of cooling water systems uses costly, dangerous to handle, toxic chemicals. In order to eliminate the many problems associated with this technology, a program was started several years ago to develop a system to produce Hypobromite on-site from harmless neutral salts using the process of electrolysis. This presentation details some of the development problems encountered in obtaining almost 100% conversion of bromide ion to Hypobromite, selection of electrode materials of construction, design of the electrolysis cell, and use of polarity reversal control cell fouling/scaling. A major advantage of the developed system is that the electrolysis cell developed is at least 80% less costly to construct than existing designs using platinum plated titanium.
Field Experience with a New, Novel Series of High Performance, Environmentally Friendly CWT Programs. Steven J. Colby, Dwight E. Emerich and Matt C. Wangerin, Ashland Specialty Chemical Company 2002
Abstract: The need for increased water conservation, improved environmental profile and enhanced safety through the minimization/elimination of acid feed in open evaporative cooling water systems has prompted the development of a new, novel series of cooling water treatment programs. These new programs were designed to handle low through high hardness, alkaline cooling waters and provide increased cycles of concentration without the need for acid feed. The programs utilize a new biodegradable carboxylic antiscalant and lower total phosphorus levels than traditional cooling water treatment programs. A description of the new technology and case histories demonstrating field efficacy will be presented.
New All Organic Chemistry for Treatment of Closed Cooling Systems. John Richardson and Michael G. Trulear, ChemTreat, Inc. 2002
Abstract: A new non-nitrite, all organic treatment chemistry for use in closed cooling systems is discussed. Development of the new chemistry for treatment of chilled water, low conductivity, and brine cooling systems is reviewed. Results of laboratory studies and field case histories are presented.
Mixed-Oxidant Use in Cooling Tower Maintenance Wesley L. Bradford, Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc. & Paul Petersen, Trident Technologies, Inc. 2001
Abstract: Tests using mixed-oxidant solution instead of oxidizing biocides (chlorine or bromine) for cooling tower maintenance, and eliminating all other biocides, found: (l) aerobic bacteria countsconsistently less than l000/mL in cooling water (no colonies on the standard Easicult TTC dip slide test), a result rarely achieved using chlorine alone or chlorine with other biocides; (2) ease in maintaining Free Available Chlorine (FAC) concentrations at 0.2-0.3 mg/L; and (3) removal of biofilms from small areas of cooling surfaces where they had accumulated inthe previous maintenance program, and a consequent reduction or complete elimination of microbiologically-induced corrosion.
Extend the Life of Wetted Surfaces Mark A. Lisin, Lisin Metallurgical Services &Thomas M. Laronge, Thomas M. Laronge, Inc. 2001
Abstract: Much industrial equipment employs wetted surfaces. Nuclear reactor toroids, cooling tower components, heat exchangers, pipes, valves, pumps, etc. vary in performance according to their design, construction, operation, maintenance and lay-up. A plethora of materials, wide ranges in skin temperatures, variant bulk temperatures, boundary layer velocities, bulk fluid velocities and fluid chemistry typically help to determine the lifetime of wetted surfaces. Service history dictates the ability of surfaced to transmit energy and to otherwise perform. Surface preparation, passivation, chemistry, mechanical cleaning and chemical cleaning affect wetted surface lifetimes. The cleaning practices discussed herein can help extend the lifetime of wetted surfaces.
Removal of Copper During Start-up of Cooling Tower Karen F. Pedraza, Dennis P. Shea, Solutia, Inc. 2001
Abstract: A new 100,000 gpm counter flow cooling tower was started up in July, 2000. The author found that very actual data existed on the amount of copper, chromate or arsenic that would be expected during the initial flushing of the new treated wood. The cooling tower manufacturers provided empirical data that served as a basis for all calculations and information that was provide to the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC). This paper discusses the environmental requirements that set the parameters for the start-up, the actual data that was taken during the initial washing of the wetted section of the treated wood during start-up and the methods used to meet environmental regulations and project goals for system start-up.
Water Treatment Can Be Bid Successfully Thomas M. Laronge, Roland A. Leathrum, Thomas M. Laronge, Inc. 2001
Abstract: Multiplant corporations are able to bid their water treatment successfully. The history of the last decade wherein bidding typically produced poor results, unnecessary litigation, equipment failures and overall dissatisfaction can be turned into a win-win future. The route to positive water treatment partnerships, alliances and cooperation between vendors and end users is discussed in detail. The keys to mutually successful water treatment biding start with establishing one multidisciplinary bid team that effectively participates in each step of the overall bidding process.
Bugs and Bugaboos of Cooling System Components Thomas M. Laronge, Thomas M. Laronge, Inc. 2000
Abstract: Cooling system components often experience accelerated deterioration. This is typically not recognized before leaks occur or structures fail. This manuscript addresses degradation mechanisms and the avoidance of failures, MIC, MAC, generalized corrosion, localized corrosion, and mechanical factors are discussed.
Recent Advances in High Alkaline Cooling Water Treatment John Richardson & Michael G. Trulear, ChemTreat, Inc. 2000
Abstract: A new treatment technology designed for acid free high LSI cooling system operation is described. Benefits including direct measurability of key actives and superior performances at high calcite and magnesium-silicate saturation levels are discussed. Laboratory and field case histories will be presented.
Twenty Minutes with Molybdate M.H.L. Garnaud, Climax Molybdenum UK, Ltd; Thomas J. Risdon, Climax Molybdenum Marketing Corporation 1997
Abstract: This paper reviews several important aspects of molybdate inhibition, and outlines how it can be efficiently employed in practice. The data presented includes some little-known work on in-situ pitting corrosion measurements featuring proton-induced characteristic x-ray emission and D.C. Impedance, and new data from unpublished work done in the UK. Synergism, mechanism and pitting inhibition are covered in some detail. Further work reviewed includes D.C. Polarization and electrochemical noise experiments. The paper presents a full appreciation of a proposed mechanism to explain synergism with certain polymers and other corrosion inhibitors, based on surface absorption of so called "molybdo-phillic" entities, which attract molybdate anions and bind them loosely by what may be regarded as week hydrogen bonds. A useful bibliography of valuable references on the subject is also included.
A New Treatment for Calcium Carbonate Control in Alkaline Conditions Jasbir S. Gill, Jennifer R. Parson, Robert C. Gordon, Calgon Corp. 1997
Abstract: The increasing costs associated with makeup and discharge water, as well as safety issues associated with the use of acid for pH control demand that cooling towers be operated at higher cycles of concentration without acid feed. Under these conditions, high calcium ion concentrations and high alkalinity at high pH makes control of calcium carbonate extremely critical. The paper presents laboratory data and history in which the effectiveness of a new cost effective treatment for control of calcium carbonate at 200 times calcite saturation at alkaline conditions.
The Advancing Evolution of Centrifugation William R. Leizear, Randall D. Delenikos, LAKOS Filtration Systems 1997
Abstract: Cyclonic Filtration has transformed itself to new levels of performance. More important than solids separation efficiency, today's equipment now addresses the concentration and handling of separated solids, thereby differentiating this technique for its waste minimization value. This presentation explores the importance of this added value and describes techniques for various applications. Liquid re-use and solids dewatering concepts are highlighted with test data and case story examples. Criteria for filtration selection will also be shared.
Fractures in Cooling Water System Components Thomas M. Laronge & Mark A. Lisin, Thomas M. Laronge, Inc. 1995
Abstract: Fractures in cooling water system components can lead to costly failures. Fracture of fan and motor shafts, fasteners, piping and tubing, heat exchangers, pump components, valves, and water cooled process equipment due to fatigue, corrosion fatigue, stress corrosion cracking, embrittlement, and overload have been observed. Fracture can be promoted by improper operation, poor design, and manufacturing errors. Examples of fracture failures of a wide variety of components are presented. Appropriate prevention and inspection techniques are also discussed.
Highly Effective New Polymer For Calcium Phosphate Control in Cooling Anne B. Austin & Michael L. Water Systems Standish, Alco Chemical 1995
Abstract: Diminishing use of heavy metal corrosion inhibitors and increased reuse of water has demanded the implementation of alternate treatment techniques for cooling water. This paper discusses the development and use of unique polymer technology capable of effectively controlling calcium phosphate precipitation. Patented chemistry utilizes functional groups that provide polymer stability in stressed cooling water systems while exhibiting calcium phosphate inhibition at low treatment levels. Polymer function is not affected by aqueous iron (II) and demonstrates significant performance as an iron inhibitor and iron oxide dispersant.
Control of Microbiological Contaminants in Small Cooling Systems (TP-93-02) Daniel H. Pope, Ph.D., Bioindustrial Technologies, Inc. William T. Osborne, Baltimore Aircoil Company 1993
Abstract: Maintenance programs on the vast majority of cooling towers and attendant open recirculating water systems of 200 tons and smaller are owner administered. The primary means employed for control of microbiological contamination is hand dosing of commercially available biocides. Highlights of a one-year study, conducted on a variety of cooling systems at a major university, are presented which show the effectiveness of the biocides and their recommended application regimen. Laboratory and field test data are also presented for an alternative, less owner/operator dependent approach to bacteria, slime, and algae control.
Fingerprints of Errors - Failures in Cooling Water Systems (TP-93-04) Arthur J. Freedman, Ph.D., Mark A. Lisin, P.E. & Thomas M. Laronge, Thomas M. Laronge, Inc. 1993
Abstract: Cooling water treatment programs focus on controlling problems, i.e., fouling deposition, scaling, corrosion, etc. When errors occur, cooling water treatment programs may appear to fail. System degradation often results, leaving "fingerprints" in the components. This paper discusses the application of failure analysis to cooling water systems. Among those topics addressed are 1) When to use failure analysis; 2) Planning the critical path; 3) How to handle components and samples; 4) pertinent analytical procedures; 5) Interpretation of the results; and 6) Avoiding future problems, i.e., lessons learned. These subjects are addressed with case history documentation.
A New On-Line Monitoring and Control Capability for Cooling Water Programs (TP-93-10) J. Richardson, K.D. Heinz & M.A. Reinsalu, Grace Dearborn, W.R. Grace 1993
Abstract: A new monitoring and control process has been developed which measures active treatment components in current cooling water treatment programs. This system incorporates a sensing device with a controller to monitor and control product federate. This sensor is superior to currently available technologies that either utilize automated wet chemical methods or measure product levels indirectly. Laboratory and field case studies will be discussed.
Silica Stabilization in Industrial Cooling Towers: Recent Experiences and Advances (TP-93-11) Paul R. Young, Christine M. Stuart & Phillip M. Eastin, Nalco Chemical Company, Marshall McCormick, Chevron 1993
Abstract: Silica Stabilization can allow increased cycles of concentration in waters where silica is a limiting factor. Recent applications of scale inhibitors specifically for silica control are part of successful water conservation programs. In one case, a Pacific refinery with 80-ppm silica in its make-up water has reduced its make-up water requirements by 50%. A discussion of silica chemistry and inhibition will be presented along with a field case study.
Practical Considerations in High Cycle Cooling Water Operations (TP-92-03) Arthur J. Freedman & Thomas M.Laronge, Thomas M. Laronge, Inc., Chester M. Malewski & Craig W. Williams, Sierra Pacific Power Company 1992
Abstract: High cycle cooling operations with sidestream softening systems often appear as the panacea for water shortages, poor water quality, corrosion mitigation, blowdown restrictions, etc. Several systems were designed and built from first principles. Many of these systems are presented. From design to blowdown, from hardware to dewatered total suspended solids and from windage to microbiologically influenced corrosion, we discuss the lessons learned.
Automated Oxidant Control (TP-92-08) Phil Kiser, Stranco, Inc. 1992
Abstract: The challenge of controlling microbiological activity is often the most difficult phase of water treatment. Due to changes in demand and limitations of current testing technology the system is subjected to a series of overfeed/underfeed situations. The relative effective of the oxidant (work value) must be taken into account to achieve automated control. The redox technology (ORP or Oxidation Reduction Potential Technology) is able to control by measuring electron transfer that occurs in the oxidation reaction. The result is technology that continuously monitors the efficacy of any oxidizing microbiocide program and adjusts oxidant feed automatically based on system cleanliness and demand.
Evaluation of Alternatives to Gaseous Chrlorine for Cooling Water Microbiological Control (TP-92-14) Marcus Vaska & Winston Go, Drew Industrial Division 1992
Abstract: Recent environmental, safety and disclosure concerns when gaseous chlorine is used and stored on-site for microbiological control have forced many cooling systems to consider alternative oxidative microbiocides. This paper shares field experiences and results in general industrial and process contaminated systems using viable (hypochlorite, bromide, chlorine dioxide) oxidative technologies, providing criteria to determine the best approach for future operation of cooling water systems in the absence of gaseous chlorine. Aspects include system cleanliness, heat transfer coefficients, pressure charges, system metallurgy corrosion, environmental, discharge, employee exposure and community protection are evaluated to aid in finding a viable alternative to gaseous chlorine.
Fail-Safe Cooling Water Operations (TP-91-04) Arthur J. Freedman & Thomas M. Laronge, Thomas M. Laronge, Inc. 1991
Abstract: Proper attention to cooling water systems operating and control parameters, and quick response to early warning signs of impending trouble can usually prevent sudden or unexpected problems. Cooling water programs and corresponding operating parameters must be evaluated and selected carefully, based on practical systems conditions. Regular chemical testing and trending of data will highlight undesirable effects before they become serious using the proper installation and use of performance-measuring devices, such as corrosion coupons. On-line corrosion monitors and deposit monitors will indicate expected results and needs for program adjustments. Finally, if a failure does occur, proper sampling, identification and historical documentation will make the failure analysis pertinent and useful, and point the way to reliable corrective and preventive action.
Precise Prediction of Cooling Water pH (TP-91-08) Craig W. Ballard & Jack V. Matson, Ph.D., P.E., University of Houston 1991
Abstract: Current cooling water computer models are only able to predict pH within +0.5 pH units. The new model developed from fundamental chemical relationships adapted and cooling water is able to predict pH within +0.5 units. Laboratory and field data will be used to illustrate the capabilities of the model. Better pH prediction will benefit operators' control of their towers and chemical treatment programs.
Practical Applications of Tracers - Beyond Product Monitoring (TP-90-01) John E. Hoots, Nalco Chemical Company 1990
Abstract: Addition of very low concentrations of chemical tracer to cooling water systems can provide a wealth of information about specific portions of they system and its operation as a whole. Obtaining that information by alternative means may be very difficult or impossible. Useful and unique functions of chemical tracers are quantifying unaccounted blowdown, leakage, time or travel of cooling water nearby waterways, and out-of-specification operating conditions. In addition, the trace serves to continuously monitor the proper operation of product feed shipment and provides an indication of treatment program performance. The chemical tracers discussed represent a significant improvement over compounds previously used in cooling water applications.
Problems and Pitfalls in Water Treatment Specifications (TP-90-10) Arthur J. Freedman & Thomas M. Laronge, Thomas M. Laronge, Inc. 1990
Abstract: This paper discusses the process of preparing specifications for chemical treatment of major cooling water systems, evaluating bid responses and operating systems in accordance with specifications. Subjects covered include: proper use of historical operating and performance data; selection of critical parameters and performance standards; the need for flexibility to permit evaluation of alternative proposals; the importance of defined responsibilities for both vendor, and user; evaluation of proposals and selection of vendor, and short and long term accountability for performance in vendor/user partnership after bid has been awarded. Although the paper deals primarily with large electric utility plants, the principles apply well to industrial plants and to other water treatment systems.
Effects of Molybdate in Cooling Water Treatment Programs (TP-90-13) Kenneth P. Fivizzani & Sang-Hea Shim, Nalco Chemical Company 1990
Abstract: The effectiveness of molybdate as a corrosion inhibitor in cooling water systems has been studied. The historical comparison to chromate is not appropriate because of chromate's greater oxidizing ability. Molybdate can function as a localized corrosion inhibitor for mild steel. Laboratory studies indicate that molybdate may be effective when used in conjunction with cathodic and other anodic inhibitors. Comparative cooling tower tests with and without molybdate illustrate conditions where molybdate has a beneficial effect.
A Chromate Replacement Program for Industrial Cooling Waters That E. Eastman, Calgon Corporation(TP-89-02) Nancy S. Sherwood, Gordon E. 1989
Abstract: The need for a chromate/zinc replacement program, which is both cost effective and easy to control, has become a must to meet restrictions related to chromate usage. Chromate replacement programs that utilize and advanced polymer technology have been developed and successfully applied in industrial cooling water systems. This paper describes results of field trials where chromate replacement is a reality and the side-by-side evaluation of chromate/zinc and this chromate replacement program using a state-of-the-art on-site mobile testing laboratory.
Cooling Water Treatment for High Conductivity Waters (TP-89-12) R. Gailey, P. Labine & S. Jost, Petrolite Corporation 1989
Abstract: Cooling water treatments are applied to concentrated waters in laboratory cooling towers. Chromate and non-chromate corrosion inhibitors are utilized to maintain corrosion control. Effective scale inhibitors allow for expanded solubility limits at elevated TDS levels and minimized fouling of heat exchanger surfaces. Both neutral pH and high alkalinity programs are applied. Two related case studies are presented.
Cutting Costs - Fast Detection and Response Corrects Cooling Water Treatment Upsets (TP-89-18) Juan Carlos Staibano, Fred Wilkes, Hernando Barba & Antonio A. Rodriguez, Aquatec Quimica, S.A. 1989
Abstract: Work describes a real problem at an oil refinery,, where process leaks/contaminants adversely affected corrosion inhibitor performance, resulting in downtime and equipment failure. A unique "fast response" system was developed, applied to spot onset of process leaks promptly, allowing response time to be cut to 85%. Field Lab facilities monitor cooling water quality continuously, including daily COD determinations. CORRATER peaks signal presence of process leaks, trigger start-up of emergency supplemental treatment program, and allow damaged exchangers to be isolated or bypassed quickly. Continuous diagnostic and control procedures have made marked improvement in cooling system operation, maintained exchanger heat transfer efficiency, reduced plant maintenance costs, and extended life of critical equipment, by preventing treatment program upsets.
An Alternative Cooling Water Treatment Program for the Replacement of Chromate (TP-88-11) Guy A. Crucil & Ronald H. Schild, Nalco Chemical Co. 1988
Abstract: An alternative cooling water program has been developed to replace chromate. Ultra low levels of zinc (0.5-2.5 ppm) have been determined to provide near comparable results in many applications to the chromate type programs. The new program has a wide application range for calcium (15 to 1000 ppm as CaCO3) and pH (7.3-9.0).
Advances in Deposit Control For Cooling Water Systems (TP-86-18) Nancy S. Sherwood & Alan L. Smith, Calgon Corporation 1986
Abstract: The deposition of suspended solids in once-through and recirculating cooling water systems can have adverse impact on heat exchangers and condensers in industrial and power generating plants. This paper reviews the chemistry of dispersion and the current methods and products for controlling deposition and presents data confirming the improved performance observed with recently developed polymer chemistry. The relationship of pH, temperature, water quality, and polymer dosage-and their effects on the dispersion of colloidal silt and iron oxide particles-are discussed. The measured zeta potential, (i.e., charge modification behavior) for various dispersants is correlated to performance in light transmittance lab tests. Field case studies are presented discussing the application of newly developed polymers to prevent deposition under actual operating conditions.
Low T.D.S. Makeup Water -- A Problem? (TP-85-07) William P. Grobmyer, Sr. & John W. Brown, Jr., P.E., Burns & McDonnell Engineering Co., Gerald Butcher, Western Farmers Electric Coop 1985
Abstract: Discusses solutions to fouling and corrosion problems associated with a water supply with low total dissolved solids (TDS). Historical data indicated that the water was clear and contained less than 100 mg/l dissolved solids, an ideal source for cooling tower makeup at a 400-MW electric generating station in Oklahoma. In fact the water was low in TDS but high in colloidal and dissolved organic material that is heat sensitive and fouling in nature.
Advances in Alkaline Cooling Water Treatment Technology: An Update (TP-85-13) Albert E. Shaffer, Jr., & Stuart D. Klatskin, Betz Laboratories, Inc. 1985
Abstract: Organic-zinc and Chromate-zinc programs specifically designed for alkaline pH cooling waters have been developed. The treatment provides excellent corrosion and scale control over a broad range of water chemistries and is applicable to high conductivity and iron-contaminated waters. Low levels of zinc are used to reduce the dependency on alkalinity and calcium carbonate super saturation for corrosion control. The precipitation and fouling problems previously encountered with zinc containing treatments have been eliminated by the use of polymeric dispersants.
Study of Cooling Water at High Cycles (TP-85-15) Jasbir S. Gill & Richard G. Varsanik, Calgon Corporation 1985
Abstract: The decreasing availability of high quality water, high pumping costs and environmental regulations are driving cooling water systems towards higher cycles, brackish makeup and zero discharge. This paper presents solutions to the difficulties of recommending chemical treatments for such systems. The methods used to obtain phase diagrams incorporating the kinetics of mineralization rather than pure equilibrium thermodynamics is discussed.
Chemical Feeding Devices for Cooling Tower Waters (TP-84-04) Water Treatment Subcommittee Cooling Tower Institute, Maxey Brooke, Chairman 1984
Abstract: A report summarizing the currently available types of chemical
Cooling Water Chlorination - Technology for the 80's (TP-274A) Frances R. Pocius & R.L. Wetegrove, Ph.D., Nalco Chemical Company 1983
Abstract: This paper will discuss the newest chlorination technology as it relates to practical cooling water application. Included will be a review of common application methods compared to more optimum technology as well as discussion of efficacy as it relates to typical cooling system pH ranges.
A "Modified" Technique of In-Place Fungicide Treatment of Cooling Towers as Used at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (TP-254A) M.F. Shelton & B.G. Warriner, Union Carbide Corporation 1982
Abstract: A "modified" technique of in-place fungicide treatment of cooling towers has been developed by Union Carbide Corporation, Paducah, Kentucky. The technique enables the fungicide user to treat towers safely without endangerment to the personnel applying the fungicide. The technique is time saving and effective in obtaining complete coverage of the plenum areas and the decking.
The Use of Ion Exchange Resins in Cooling Tower Technology (TP-137A) Dr. Robert Kunin, Rohm & Haas Company 1975
Recovery of Chromate from Cooling Tower Blowdown by Ion Exchange Resins (TP-138A) Daisuke Yamamoto, Koichi Yabe & Osamu Abe, Kurita Water Industries Ltd. 1975
Instrumentation in Cooling Water Systems (TP-142A) Charles G. Arnold, Dow Chemical U.S.A. 1975
Automatic Chlorination of Cooling Water Using ORP Sensing (TP-144A) Roy V. Comeaux & J.N. Chatfield, Exxon Company, U.S.A. 1975
Coordinated Cooling Water Treatment Programs (TP-132A) James L. Twiford, Hercules, Inc. 1974
New Developments in Cooling Water Treatment Technology (TP-133A) E.J. Levi, Ph.D., Drew Chemical Corporation 1974
Microbiological Control in Cooling Water Systems (TP-119A) William H. Yost, Zimmite Corp. 1973
Maintaining Clean Water Systems With Chemical Additives (TP-76A) S.D. Curtis & R.M. Silverstein, Drew Chemical Corporation 1970
Abstract: Discussion of major types of foulants in cooling water systems and the means of preventing the associated deposit problems. The various types of antifoulants of the flocculant, dispersant and chelant variety are discussed in detail along with their effect on fouling materials. Laboratory equipment is presented which enables the study of simulated fouling conditions and the screening of various antifoulants. Case histories are cited indicating the problems encountered, the treatment employed and the results obtained.
Proper and Efficient Operation of a Cooling Tower Water System (TP-79A) Clyde A. Farris, Jr., Water Services, Inc. 1970
Abstract: This paper attempts to discuss the proper automatic equipment for controlling the chemical feed and bleed-off of a cooling tower water system, coupled with the right chemical treatment program and the benefits it offers the operating owners.
For Greater Plant Efficiency - De-Oil Your Water - and Save (TP-20B) Dr. L. Bakker & B.S. Hazel, National Castings Division, Midland-Ross Corporation 1966
An Overall Concept of Cooling Water Treating Economics (TP-18C) George M. Kieth, Aquatrol, Inc. 1965

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