CTI Bibliography of Technical Papers - Treatment Evaluation

Revised 2017

To add a paper to your shopping cart, click on the paper's order number button.

Treatment Evaluation
Order NumberTitleAuthorDate
How to Choose a Biocide Program for a Recirculating Cooling System Christopher Baron, ChemTreat, Inc. 2017
Abstract: Preventing microbial growth in recirculating cooling systems is crucial to maintain productivity at your site and extend the life of your capital assets. Choosing the correct biocide program for your particular system requires assessing factors other than free chlorine levels and planktonic microbe counts. This paper will describe various microbial growth control technologies, how to choose among them, and how to monitor the performance and value of the program chosen.
Controlled Hydrodynamic Cavitation: A Physical Water Softening & Disinfection Method Joshuah Beach-Letendre and Carl Steffen, Ecowater CHC 2016
Abstract: Cavitation has long been known to be a powerful force usually associated with unwanted destruction of system components. Controlled cavitation however can yield to beneficial outcomes when applied to water treatment for cooling towers. Cavitation forces calcium to be removed creating a mechanical softener that also destroys bacteria. This redirection of force is currently being employed to eliminate scaling and biofouling successfully in cooling towers around the globe. By coupling this technology with additional filtration, cavitation technology can be adapted to provide non-chemical system water treatment to a variety of fields as well as enhance water savings in drought-stricken areas.
The Evolution And Practical Application Of Scale Inhibitor Modelling And Dosage Optimization In Industrial Water Treatment Robert J. Ferguson, French Creek Software, Inc. 2016
Abstract: Models for scale inhibitor dosage optimization have been evolving since the 1970s in parallel to the computerization of scale prediction methods. Increasing use of less than desirable water sources, and application over broad pH, temperature and iconic strength ranges have increased the need for sophisticated models to allow effective economical treatment, and to minimize treatment levels and cost, while providing acceptance levels of scale contrail. This paper discusses the development and practical application of state of the art models for controlling mineral scale formation in industrial systems.
The Impact Of Ionic Strength Upon Inhibitor Speciation and Efficacy Robert J Ferguson, French Creek Software, Inc. 2015
Abstract: Dosage optimization requires sounds mathematical models for inhibitor dosages. Frequent questions include: What test methods should be used to develop scale inhibitor performance data? How do you determine "end points" where scale inhibition is lost? What experimental design matrix should be used to prepare test conditions? How are failure points determined? This paper addresses these questions and describes recommended test methods for evaluating scale inhibitor performance based upon induction time extension.
Alternative to Bromine Improves Cooling Water Microbial Control and Overall Treatment Andrew Boal, MIOX Corporation 2015
Abstract: Ammonia in the cooling loop poses an additional challenge for Hypochlorite or oxidizing biocides in controlling the microbiological activity since monochloramines are not effective biocides. Historically Bromine based non-oxidizing biocides have been an industry standard with occasional Isothiazolin or Gluteraldhyde dosage. This paper discusses how mixed oxidants, as a combination of hypochlorite and peroxide, generated on-site replaced non-oxidizing biocides and improved overall water treatment regime at a major semiconductor facility in the US.
Novel Biocide Delivery for Improved Control of Biofilm Organisms Dorothy Reynolds, GE Water & Process Technologies 2013
Abstract: A variety of biocides are used to control microbial populations in cooling systems. Sessile microbes form biofilms that, if uncontrolled, result in biofouling which impedes heat transfer, promotes corrosion and increases the potential for illness. Controlling biofilm with traditional biocides typically require higher concentrations. Evaluation of a Novel Biocide Delivery material which enhances delivery of biocides to biofilms for increased efficacy is described. Lab and field studies show that the new material allows for a reduction in active biocide levels compared to a traditional biocide while at the same time providing for a higher degree of control over biofilm.
Chemical Cleaning Techniques for Galvanized and Stainless Cooling Towers Kevin Emery and Rob Bedniger, ChemTreat, Inc. 2013
Abstract: This paper discusses techniques for online and offline cleaning of cooling towers including galvanized towers, to remove biological fouling and mineral deposits. The processes involve specialty chemicals and technical expertise.
Film Formation, Stability and Corrosion Inhibition of Surface Deposited Film Inhibitors Jon J. Cohen and Sean Parmelee, H-O-H Water Technology 2013
Abstract: A novel methodology for studying the formation of surface deposited corrosion inhibitors on copper has been developed. The methodology has been reported previously, including a detailed study of the mechanism of film formation. This study continues the use of the test method; detailing kinetics of film formation for various surface deposited film inhibitors not previously reported, corrosion rates using various inhibitors and affects of halogenated compounds. Results of synergistic mixtures of film deposited inhibitors will also be presented.
Application of Controlled Release Chemistry to Cooling Towers Kevin Emery, ChemTreat, Inc. and Miles Stoffer, Dober 2013
Abstract: This paper discusses successful application of Smart Release technology to HVAC cooling systems. The paper illustrates how to design the program for success in these smaller hard-to-access applications.
Field Evaluation and Verification of Biological Control in Operating Cooling Tower Water Systems Utilizing Non-Chemical Pulse Electric Field Devices Paul Puckorius, Puckorius & Associates, Inc 2012
Abstract: Pulse Electric Field Devices (PEFDs) have been used as the sole source of water treatment in evaporative cooling water systems for over 10 years often with good results. Several field evaluations will be presented that provide detailed data on microbiological control entirely by the FEFDs. This paper will present both field and laboratory test data independently obtained from operating cooling tower water systems which rely solely on PEFDs for microbiological control. This data shows that adequate and acceptable control of both planktonic (bulk water) and sessile (biofilm) microbial populations in numerous full-sized cooling tower systems in being obtained. A comparison of field versus lab microbiological testing methods and results will be presented that indicate if proper Guidelines will be provided for field microbiological monitoring.
AWTs ASHRAE Liaison Report: NCDs and Biological Control in Cooling Water Systems Bill Pearson 2011
Abstract: AWTs (ASHRAE) Liaison Report presents and summarizes the recent ASHRAE research project, 1361-RP, on biological control in cooling water systems using non-chemical treatment devices. The report presents the result of ASHRAEs controlled, independent, and scientific evaluation of several classes on non-chemical treatment devices (NCDs) for efficacy in reducing planktonic (bulk water) and sessile (Biofilm) microbial populations within a pilot-scale cooling system. The report also presents and summarizes a critique of objections to the ASHRAE research project.
Practical Evaluation Of Treatment Chemicals For Scale Inhibition In Open Evaporative Sea Water Cooling Roy A. Holliday and Gary E. Geiger, GE Water & Process Technologies 2011
Abstract: In certain parts of the world seawater has become the makeup water of choice for evaporative cooling water systems. The use of seawater is generally limited by the ability to control scaling of mineral deposits. To address the need for more effective deposit control and the ability to operate at higher cycles of concentration, scale inhibitors were evaluated under evaporative conditions that simulated the operation of a cooling water system. This permitted both the evaluation of the hydraulic operation and the relative efficacy of specific scale inhibitors. Laboratory studies demonstrated that the selection of specific chemistry for scale and deposit control could materialize in operation of seawater cooling systems at higher concentration factors than is normal practice, and potentially reduce or eliminate the use of acid for pH reduction.
Twenty-Year's of Cooling Water Treatment Experience in Manhattan Dr. Marcus N. Allhands, PE and Carmine Puglisi, Orival, Inc. 2007
Abstract: Twenty years ago, Hartz Mountain was concerned about water quality issues on their new HVAC system. Pollen, dust and insects would surely be scrubbed from the atmosphere by the large roof top cooling tower that was to provide cooling water to a package unit designed to condense water from a nearby commercial building to condition indoor air. The protection provided by the original solution and minimal maintenance are what convinced management to replace the initial installation with a similar product fifteen years later. This paper will describe the original treatment system, maintenance issues over the past twenty years and chemical cost savings.
Cooling Water Treatment Using Smart (Controlled) Release Technology Mike Klooster and Dan Dobrez - Dober Group 2007
Abstract: A multi-functional cooling water treatment chemical is applied to a cooling tower system using a diffusion-based technology utilizing patented coated tablets. The coating technology provides the desired release rate of the active ingredients in the table core, eliminating the need for mechanical pumping systems. This chemical treatment method results in consistent chemical release, elimination of electrical feed system components, improved program safety for operators, elimination of chemical container disposal issues and is environment all safe.
Practical Approach to Solving Cooling Water Treatment Problems Using Customized Chemical Formulation Daniel P. Curnock and Edward W. Cocetti, ChemCentric 2003
Abstract: Traditionally, water treatment suppliers have not proactively disclosed the ingredients in their cooling water chemical products. However, certain cooling water problems are solved most effectively when the supplier openly discloses the chemical formulation and works with the end-user to customize a chemical treatment product specific for that application. This report provides the technical background, and describes a methodology, for the end-user to apply chemical customization techniques. This approach includes: defining the problem, identifying key process conditions, assessing water quality and specifying the types, quantities, and costs of the required chemical ingredients. Case histories are also presented.
Multipurpose Water Treatment In Cooling Towers Sukjun Kang, and Jasper Lee, EEKO Bio Corporation, Jeyong Yoon, and Min Cho, Seoul National University - USA 2003
Abstract: EEKO BALL (Applied for P.C.T. - KROI/01155) is made of specific ceramics and uniquely designed inorganic coating substances. Through contact with water, functional anions are generated which react to the protoplasm of bacteria to form an isolating film over the bacteria surface. This causes an interruption in the nutrient supply and the bacteria dies. The ceramic emanates long infrared rays causing water activation. The activated water reduces rusting and scaling in steel structures. This system does not generate secondary contamination and is non-toxic. EEKO BALL Requires no maintenance, is easy to install, and is economical.
Condenser Water Treatment Using Pulsed-Power John Lane, Clearwater Systems and David F. Peck, Eichleay Engineers & Constructors 2003
Abstract: This paper describes the results from four years of operating experience with pulsed-power (a non-chemical water treatment system) on a 600-ton Pittsburgh cooling tower. The tower was commissioned in May 1998 and has been operated exclusively with pulsed-power units as the only water treatment. Biological data, corrosion data, water chemistries, and thermal efficiencies will be reported.
A Laboratory Method for Evaluating Biocidal Efficacy on Biofilms Micheal Ludyanskiy, Steven J. Colby, Lonza, Inc. 1996
Abstract: Modified methods for monitoring biofilm growth and control were implemented for evaluation of known and potential biocides and dispersants. This paper will present the results of laboratory test to study effect of novel chemicals on in vitro cultures of filamentous bacteria.
A Comprehensive Evaluation of Molybdate-Based Cooling Water Treatment Technology (TP-88-03) Joseph S. Roti & Kenneth F. Soeder, Drew Industrial Division 1988
Abstract: Molybdate-based corrosion inhibitors have been used in cooling water treatment for some time. Their widespread use has been limited, however, by key technical and economic factors. This paper explores a number of new products, recently developed, which demonstrate why molybdate-based programs can now be used in almost any application. An in-depth technical discussion on how molybdates function as inhibitors and what other treatments aid or hinder their effectiveness is included. Laboratory data is presented to verify the theoretical. Case histories of actual cooling water applications are discussed which show when and where molybdate-based products have outperformed other, more traditional treatments. Economics are also included which outline the relative costs of these programs versus other treatment programs. Finally, the environmental aspects of molybdate are also outlined in the paper. With metallic treatments such as zinc and chromate under close scrutiny by governmental agencies, the existing laws governing the discharge of molybdate are reviewed and the future disposition of this material scrutinized.
Pilot Cooling System Evaluation of Treatment Program Effectiveness in a Refinery Environment (TP-88-12) Beatrise A. Bross & Robert J. Ferguson, Chemlink, Inc. 1988
Abstract: A Pilot Cooling System was developed to simulate the operation of an open recirculating cooling system for the purpose of evaluating potential cooling water treatment programs on a pilot scale prior to their implementation in the refinery cooling system. Pilot scale evaluations of newer, more environmentally acceptable, treatment programs were desired to determine their effectiveness in a refinery, without the need to treat the entire refinery cooling system. This report outlines a side-by-side comparison of treatment program effectiveness observed for an alkaline chromate treatment program run on the main refinery cooling system and on the Pilot Cooling System. This test sequence was run with the objective of correlating results obtained on the Pilot System to those achieved on the main refinery cooling system. Results of laboratory screening tests are also compared to those achieved in the Pilot System and on the main refinery cooling system. A detailed description of the equipment, monitoring methods, and results is included.
Methods For Evaluating the Efficacy of Biocides Against Sessile Bacteria (TP-87-06) Carol A. Jones, Jane H. Leidlein & Jeff G. Grierson, Dow Chemical Company 1987
Abstract: Methods have been developed to evaluate sessile bacteria fouling in cooling water pilot plants. Duplicate systems for test and control conditions are dedicated to the evaluation of biocides against wild organisms under real world conditions. This paper will focus on the pilot plant's design and operation along with the techniques and instruments used to evaluate bacterial fouling. Results comparing an experimental biocide to a control will be presented.
Microbiological Test Methods in Association With Cooling Towers (TP-86-7) Helen E. Crandall, Hercules, Inc. 1986
Abstract: The function and proper use of biocides was probably the least understood and investigated aspect of cooling water treatment programs for many years. Since the imposition Federal and State restrictions on the discharge of toxic effluents, the demand for effective and knowledgeable biocide treatment has increased. This has resulted in the use of analytical procedures which now includes not only measurement of planktonic bacteria, but also more sophisticated monitors for biofilm development caused by the presence of sessile bacteria. A discussion of some of these analytical procedures is presented.
Test Method For Biocide Evaluations in Cooling Towers (TP-267A) Helen E. Crandall, Hercules, Inc. 1983
Abstract: Actual cooling tower water is used as the test medium to establish proper biocide treatment in recirculating systems. The method is effective not only for aerobes and facultative anaerobes, but also includes test for sulfate-reducing anaerobes plus molds and yeasts through the use of slides. Results accurately show the effect of biocides on microbial growth in the water and are more sensitive and superior to the "all or none" response of broth tube tests. The test procedure, examples and comparisons with some standard methods are the subject of this paper.
Fundamentals of Cooling Tower Water Technology (TP-140A) Sidney Sussman, Ph.D., Olin Water Services 1975
New Concepts in Alkaline Cooling Water Treatments (TP-122A) Dr. Arthur J. Freedman & Roger Nass, Nalco Chemical Company 1973
Cooling Tower Design Criteria and Water Treatment (TP-85A) F.W. Motley & T.C. Hoppe Black & Veatch Consulting Engineers 1970
Abstract: Some of the major considerations involved in selecting the cooling water system of a large industrial plant such as an electric generating station are presented in this paper. Cooling Tower specifications and testing are reviewed and considerations for the water treatment and waste water disposal of a cooling water system utilizing a tower.
Water Treatment for Cooling Towers (TP-46A) J.L. Thornley, Bird-Archer Co. 1968
Agricultural Waste Water Treatment Methods (TP-53A) Don Swain, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation 1968
A Survey of Desalination Technology (TP-19B) W.F. McIlhenny, The Dow Chemical Company 1966
Cooling Water Treatment Dollars and Sense (TP-20A) Maxey Brooke, Phillips Petroleum Company 1966

© Copyright 2012-2016
Cooling Technology Institute