CTI Bibliography of Technical Papers - Use of Biocides

Revised 2015

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Use of Biocides
Order NumberTitleAuthorDate
An Alternative Approach to Disinfection Using Chlorine Dioxide Ingmar Hermans and Vincent Van Camp, TwinOxide International B.V. 2015
Abstract: The use of oxidizing biocides is among the most cost effective means of disinfecting water. Chlorine dioxide has various benefits compared to other oxidizing biocides, but its stability, properties, and characteristics necessitate that in situ generation, typically using precursor solutions in a chlorine dioxide generator is a common practice. Apart from chlorine dioxide gas or vapor, the precursor solutions can pose a potential health and safety hazard and require appropriate safety precautions to be incorporated in the design and operation of generation and dosing equipment. The use of solid precursors can simplify the generation of chlorine dioxide, eliminate some of the potential hazards encountered with other generation methods, and produce stable chlorine dioxide solutions which can be used in many types of disinfection applications. Attributes of chlorine dioxide, its generation, and application are discussed in this paper.
Unique Biodispersant Removes Biofilms and Increases Biocides Efficacy Melvin H. Czechowski & Kurt W. Whitekettle, BetzDearborn Inc. 1999
Abstract: Bacteria in Cooling Water systems must be controlled because bacteria attach to surfaces, forming biofilms that inhibit heat transfer, block fluid flow, promote corrosion, etc. Control is obtained mainly by use of biocides. However, to be effective against biofilm-forming bacteria, biocides must be used in high concentrations; however, control is often marginal. In addition, high biocide concentrations may increase toxicity in water in some instances and could result in discharge problems. Data is presented on a unique, adjuvant material that increases the efficacy of oxidizing and non-oxidizing biocides against bacteria both in biofilms and in cooling water, and that also helps remove slime/biofilm form surfaces.
A New Biocide for Control of Algal Biofouling in Cooling Towers K. Mark Wiencek, Terry M. Williams, Robert F. Semet, Rohm and Haas Company 1998
Abstract: A new, environmentally friendly isothiazolone biocide has been developed. The new biocide, which recently won a "Green Chemistry" award, is highly effective in controlling the growth of algae in cooling water. Laboratory tests demonstrate broad-spectrum algicidal properties against a range of green algae and blue-green bacteria (cyanobacteria). Field trials, conducted in several regions, confirmed the efficacy of the new biocide at low use levels. The new biocide is fast-acting and controls algal grow thin recirculating cooling water as well as algal biofilms on tower decks.
The Growth and Control of Nitrifying Bacteria in a Urea Plant Cooling (TP-87-15) S.P. Holmes, Petrolite Corporation 1987
Abstract: A urea plant cooling water system experienced problems with the growth of nitrifying bacteria which produced nitric acid from ammonia resulting in a sharp drop in the pH of the cooling water was found to drop from 7.5 to 6.1 over a period of 34 days. It was demonstrated in the laboratory that bacteria possessing the enzyme urease were present in the cooling water. A number of biocides were screened for their ability to inhibit growth of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in both a mineral salts medium and the cooling water in a series of laboratory tests.
Fungus Control in Cooling Towers (TP-6B) C.W. Brown, Betz Laboratories, Inc. 1964
Combating Biological Attack on the Gulf Coast (TP-4A) C.D. Carlson, Dow Chemical Company, U.S.A. 1963

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