CTI Bibliography of Technical Papers - Water Management

Revised 2016

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Water Management
Order NumberTitleAuthorDate
A CMIT/MIT Surfactant Blend To Control Biofilms In Industrial Water Systems Brian Corbin, Ph.D., The Dow Chemical Company 2016
Abstract: Isothiazolone biocides are used to control bacteria, algae, fungi and biofilms in industrial water systems. Surfactants are also known directly influence biofilm formation and stability. In this report, we describe a new, one-drum liquid solution that combines 5-Chloro-2-Methyl-4-Isothiazolin-3-one. (CMIT) and 2-Methyl-4-Isothisazolin-3-one (MIT) with a high-performance, low aquatic toxicity surfactant. The solution is stable, low foaming and effective in controlling microorganisms at low parts per million levels. The methods used to evaluate the performance of the product and laboratory and field testing results will be presented.
Managing Reliability In Industrial Cooling Systems Kevin Emery, ChemTreat, Inc. and Al Feltzin, Linde Gases 2015
Abstract: This paper will discuss the management process for optimizing the performance and reliability of industrial cooling at multiple facilities across North America. We discuss training, standardization and service standards based on key performance indicators. The process defines the roles responsibilities of the service providers, end users and program director.
Lessons Learned from a HERO-Based ZLD System Brad Buecker, Kiewit Power Engineers 2014
Abstract: A critical topic that continues to be discussed at CTI meetings is the need for water conservation across a broad spectrum of industries and municipal applications. More and more, plant personnel are looking at cooling tower blowdown recycle and recovery as a method to conserve water. An emergency technology is water recovery based on the high-efficiency reverse osmosis (HERO™) technology. This process includes ultrafiltration, softening, and reverse osmosis. However, the concentrating nature of cooling towers combined with chemical treatment programs subjects blowdown treatment systems to chemistry that may significantly influence performance. This paper examines lessons learned from HERO operation at a power plant in the Pacific Northwest. Difficulties included poor performance of an upstream multi-media filter, fouling of ultrafilter membranes from standard cooling tower treatment chemicals, and the somewhat belated realization that feed of a cationic polymer ahead of membrane systems is typically not a good idea. Also outlined is how improvement to the magnesium oxide feed system for a raw water clarifier significantly improved silica removal from the cooling tower makeup.
A Detailed Independent Field Site Evaluation of Electrodynamic Field Generation Results as the Cooling Water Treatment Paul R. Puckorius, Puckorius & Associates, Inc; John E. Dresty, Jr, Griswold Water Systems; and Richard Ruckstuhl, Jr., Waterhouse Corporation 2014
Abstract: An extensive evaluation of corrosion, deposits, and both bio-mass and suspended bacteria testing was established for a cooling tower water system to determine the effectiveness of an Electrodynamic Field generator. This independent evaluation was monitored for over 11 months utilizing corrosion coupons, sessile and planktonic bacteria testing as well as photos of the cooling tower fill and testing of the chiller performance. This detailed monitoring also includes makeup and cooling tower water quality. The results of this monitoring are provided which shows the outstanding effectiveness of this system in controlling corrosion, deposition and microbiological growth. This Electrodynamic field generator that was used is of the pulsed power design with a much higher level of power compared to other pulse powered systems, which provides greater stability and reliability thus producing significant improved corrosion, deposition, and bio-mass microbiological control.
Potable Water Reduction Strategies Jon J. Cohen and Henry A. Becker, H-O-H Water Technology 2011
Abstract: Cooling towers are the largest water using utility in buildings. Deteriorating water quality and decreasing sources of potable water are driving new initiatives in water conservation. Water treatment strategies that reduce potable water use and preserve resources have been successfully implemented in the past decade. The strategies presented will cover basic operational methods, treatment strategies and approaches for potable water reduction. An overview of key strategies and design criteria for architects and engineers will assist in the implementation of efficient potable water use in condenser water systems.
The Conversion From Gas to Tablet Chlorination: A Case Study Austin Looper, PPG Industries
Billy Smith, ChemTreat, Inc
Abstract: Chlorine gas is used extensively in large cooling tower applications, but the environmental and safety risks have left operators searching for alternatives. This paper will review a conversion from chlorine gas to calcium hypochlorite tablet feed technology on a gulf coast chlor-alkali plant cooling tower. The paper will exhibit, in detail, the impact on cost, corrosion, tower performance, calcium buildup, and safety and handling.
Sewage Effluent for Cooling: A Forty-Year Experience in the Texas Panhandle Bernie Wieck, Universal Utility Services 2007
Abstract: Sewage effluent for cooling has been utilized in the Texas panhandle since the early 1060's. A history of cooling water treatment for electricity production, as well as recommendations for new installations will be presented.
Low Cost Cooling Tower Biocide Alternatives David Evans and Abdulaziz Turaik, Saudi Aramco 2005
Abstract: Saudi Aramco's Dhahran Utilities department is concerned about both biocide cost and biocide performance for the operation of its seventeen cooling towers (40 cells). The department tested alternative biocides and is now using an effective low cost biocide. Slug dosing calcium hypochlorite was used for many years for microbiological control on the cooling towers. The cost of the calcium hypochlorite was relatively low, however, when it was slugged dosed, the calcium hypochlorite oxidized expensive anti scalant, reducing heat exchanger protection. Therefore using calcium hypochlorite had a high overall cost. The department tested non oxidizing biocides to eliminate the anti scalant oxidizing problems. The non oxidizing biocides worked but they cost twenty times more than calcium hypochlorite. Also, the cooling tower operators did not like the safety concerns with non oxidizing biocides. The department successfully tested and is now using a low cost biocide that is normally used for swimming pools. Testing included microbiological test to confirm the biocides effectiveness.
Automating the Cooling Water Triangle David L. Stonecipher, Steven R. Hatch, Daniel A. Meier, Barbara E. Moriarty, and Mita Chattoraj, ONDEO-Nalco Company 2003
Abstract: This paper will introduce a new cooling water approach that combines direct, real-time control of all three corners of the "cooling water triangle" with the appropriate chemistry solution and advanced communications and data management technologies. Three unique monitoring technologies will be presented and the corresponding control algorithms discussed. One molecular sensor directly and dynamically measures the actual system microbial activity (planktonic and sessile), the second sensor provides a surrogate for actual system deposition of scale and/or particulates, and the third sensor offers an improved LPR corrosion monitor. Field use of this new total cooling water management system will be discussed, including the benefits of improved system performance, better response to operational variability, 24/7 conversion of knowledge to value, and minimized operator involvement.
San Antonio Water System's Cooling Tower Audit Program Results In Significant Water Savings Eddie Wilcut, San Antonio Water System and John J. Sims, and Tory Tvedt, Puckorius & Associates, Inc. 2003
Abstract: The SAWS project to reduce fresh water use in cooling tower water systems was initiated in 1999. It has saved many acre feet of fresh water. This water savings to cooling tower users has provided other major benefits, which are outlined and discussed. The methodology utilized in this project is identified along with a number of case history examples.
Power Plant Restores Cooling System Performance With Bio-detergent Cleanup Charles W.H. Foster and Trevor Gent, ONDEO-Nalco Canada Company 2003
Abstract: Cooling tower performance deteriorates continuously over time, but only manifests itself as a problem during adverse ambient conditions. For a power plant this can have severe economic consequences as peak power demand coincides with the very ambient conditions that can limit cooling capacity and power output. This work documents the results achieved in a successful bio-detergent application at a 26 MW power plant.
Get the Limits of Cooling Tower Design: Low Approach-Large Range-Cold Michel Monjoie, Hamon Thermal
Rob Schwalm, Barrick Goldstrike
Abstract: Cooling 65000 GPM geothermal water from 140°F to 38°F with 29°F wet bulb was realized at Barrick Goldstrike mine using two - 10 cell - cooling towers running in series. The paper describes the cooling process, the cooling tower design, and the hydraulic design given safe and flexible operation, the winter operation and the test results.
Cooling Tower Water Conservation Using Solubility Chemistry Stephen E. Mitchell, S & S
Consulting Services
Abstract: Evaluation and successful results of the use of a weak organic acid and amine compound to increase hardness salt solubility at alkaline pH levels in an open recirculating cooling system, which will allow higher cycles of concentration than standard acid and non-acid cooling water programs.
An Effective Method for Non-Chemical Control of Microbial Activity in John Dresty, Environmental Research Institute; James Fitzpatrick, Warner Lambert Corp. 1997
Abstract: This paper describes the methodology and results from a field test of a novel electric water treatment system for cooling towers. The technology has been widely used in Europe for over 5 years with success, and is now commercially available in the United States. The Cooling Tower tested was a new installation used to support shop air compressors in a manufacturing facility in Connecticut. The heart of the device is a variable high frequency transformer that imparts electrical energy to the cooling tower water. The system tested achieved high reliability from a patented data feedback circuit that constantly changes the applied voltage and frequency, based on the variable chemical and physical characteristics of the flowing water. The data produced, during the trial, showed excellent promise for non-chemical control of the bacteria and algae, and scale and corrosion prevention in cooling towers.
Designing a Cooling Water Program With the Aid of a Three-Dimensional Cost Optimization Computer Method (TP-90-02) Mei H. Hwang, Charles J. McCloskey & John A. Hvizdos, Calgon Corporation 1990
Abstract: When managers of cooling water systems operations make decisions concerning a treatment approach for scale, corrosion or deposit control, economics often play a very important role. A treatment program must be economically justified before it is implemented, and managers traditionally strive to optimize cost without sacrificing performance goals and unit reliability. Many factors affect the operations of a recirculating cooling water systems and there are numerous components that comprise the total cost of a treatment program. However, when asked, "What is the cost?" of a given treatment program, the reply often centers on the cost of specialty chemicals used in the program. In fact, a closer look at the variables that affect the total treatment cost gives a more representative picture than specialty chemicals alone. Operating variable such as cycles of concentration and pH of recirculating cooling water and the acceptable level of corrosion inhibitors are important factors to be considered. "Cycles of concentration" of a recirculating cooling water system defines the material balance of a cooling water system, and directly affects a variety of make-up and blowdown related costs. Targeted recirculating cooling water "pH" not only dictates the cost of pH adjustment chemicals, but also influences the concentration of specialty chemicals required for the achievement of scale and corrosion inhibition goals. The acceptable level of "corrosion inhibition" itself can have a great impact on the amount of chemicals needed and, therefore, the treatment costs. This paper describes how decision makers can visually examine the impact of operating variables on various costs elements as well as total cost and quickly make an informed decision. Computer modeling of cost optimization and three-dimensional graphic display play a strong role creating "pictures" of the relationship between cost and operating variables. Cases of practical application in real-world setting using the computer-aided methodology are presented.
Enhanced Water Management Using Bromine Chemistry (TP-86-09) Rodney H. Sergent, Great Lakes Chemical Corporation 1986
Abstract: The unique chemistry of bromine offers distinct advantages over chlorine in many water treatment situations. Understanding where to use bromine chemistry can produce an enhanced water management program. This paper discusses the differences between bromine and chlorine chemistry especially the effects of pH and ammonia. The most common sources of hypobromous acid (bromine, bromine chloride, bromide salts + chlorine, and N-bromo halogen donors) are discussed. New experimental data and a comprehensive bibliography are included.
The Importance of Water Management in Plant Design (TP-84-02) Bruce M. Webber & Albert D. Owens, Calgon Corporation 1984
Abstract: This paper will show the benefits of cooperation between design and consulting engineers, customers, and water treatment suppliers at early stages of planning for plant water supply (or for changing water supply and systems in existing plants). Case history examples from actual projects will be included. Practical approaches such as conducting water audits, determining quality of water required for various uses; reviewing areas of supply such as composition of the proposed water source, how it could affect plant equipment or plant processes will be included. Also covered will be how to develop cooling water treatment programs based on the plant's long-term business and environmental goals-how options can be selected, how to make reuse or water discharge decisions.
Optimum Recycle and Reuse Cooling Systems Designs Using the BCT TM Process (TP-244A) Richard L. Lancaster & William G.Snaderson, Tower Systems, Inc. 1982
Abstract: The paper will discuss how the Binary Cooling Tower (BCT) can be utilized in evaporative cooling applications to optimize recycle and reuse of circulating water system designs without the risks usually associated with high TDS water.
San Juan Water Conservation Reality (TP-247A) Richard D. Landon, The Marley Cooling Tower Company 1982
Abstract: The wet/dry tower at San Juan Station of Public Service Company of New Mexico is the world's first large water conservation cooling tower. The numerous design assumptions required for San Juan and the assumptions required for similar applications are reviewed. Test results and operating experience are included.
The National Assessment of Water Resources: Implications for the Cooling Tower Industry (TP-179A) Robert Brewer & Patrick H. McAuley, Industry & Trade Administration 1978
Chlorine Dixide Use in Cooling Systems Using Sewage Effluent as Make-up (TP-183A) Harry J. Gray, Olin Water Services, A.W. Speirs, City of Burbank, CA 1978
Complete Reuse of Cooling Tower Blowdown (TP-145A) M.I. Perry & J.V. Matson, S & B Engineers 1976
Cooling Water Use by Manufacturers - Present and Future (TP-129A) Robert Brewer & Patrick H. McAuley, Bureau of Domestic Commerce 1974
Sewage Plant Effluent as Cooling Tower Makeup -- A Case History (TP-116A) Harry J. Gray & C.V. McGuigan, Olin Corporation, Harold W. Rowland, City of Burbank, CA 1973
Industrial Waste Water Reclamation (TP106A) T.M. Fosberg, Resources Conservation Company 1972
Water Conservation From the Standpoint of Private Industry (TP-54A) F.P. Stanton, Kaiser Steel Corp. 1968
Sound Water Management, Ket to Future Supply (TP-22A) Dr. L. Bakker, Midland-Ross Corporation 1966
The Use of Municipal Sewage Effluent in Cooling Towers (TP-14A) Richard O. Cummings, El Paso Natural Gas Products Company 1964

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