CTI Bibliography of Technical Papers - Water Reuse

Revised 2016

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Water Reuse
Order NumberTitleAuthorDate
Increasingly Complex Tower Makeup Water Issues Brad Buecker and Behrang (Ben) Pakzadeh, Kiewit Engineering And Design 2016
Abstract: As fresh water becomes increasingly scarce in the United States, or perhaps due to political pressures, new power and industrial plant owners are turning to alternatives supplies for plant makeup, including the makeup to cooling towers. A common source is secondary treated municipal wastewater effluent. These waters often contain impurities that serve as nutrients for microbiological fouling in cooling systems, and include ammonia, phosphorus, organics, and suspended solids. It may not only be beneficial but imperative to remove these containments upstream of the cooling tower, but methods to do so require careful planning and selection. Technologies that are coming to the forefront from include membrane bioreactors (MBR) and moving bed bioreactors (MBBR). They may be integrated with clarification and other treatment methods to achieve the desired cooling tower makeup quality. This paper examines these emerging issues.
From Vision to Practical and Cost Effective Design Roy Holliday, GE Water & Process Technologies, Europe; Shereif Allsayed, GE W&P Tech, MiddleEast&Africa; Amr Eladawy, Abu Qir Fertilizer Co., Egypt 2015
Abstract: A major Middle East Fertilizer Plant, with a long history of successfully reusing water in open evaporative cooling systems, had a mission to further reduce water consumption, effluent discharge and operating costs. Various approaches were proposed and appraised. This paper discusses options available for applicable approaches to reduce water consumption, effluent and operating cost; with an ultimate aim to achieve the vision of Zero Liquid Discharge.
Water Reuse – As Time Goes by do the Less Attractive Approaches or Options Now Look More Attractive Roy A. Holliday and Gary E. Geiger, GE Water & Process Technologies 2013
Abstract: Reuse of lower quality waters as make-up water to Open Evaporative Cooling Water Systems has been implemented and practiced for several decades. The driving force was often “image”, lowering environmental impact, and/or economic benefits (reduced operating costs). Pareto’s Principle was often followed if not strictly applied, the easiest, lowest cost to implement approaches were those most often implemented. With the passage of time, more stringent restrictions on permitted discharge consents and/or increased cost or reduced availability of good quality water have emerged or developed in some parts of the world. This may have a significant impact upon the benefits and requirements of existing reuse applications and/or make the previously less attractive projects worth reconsidering. The additional requirements that current applications may require, more advanced techniques that may be used within reuse projects are discussed within this paper.
A State-of-the-Art Chemistry Based Toolset for Developing and Optimizing Power Plant Water Balance Models Daniel J Robinette, Rocky Mountain Water Engineering, LLC 2012
Abstract: For most of the industrial era, water has essentially been viewed as a free or very low-cost commodity but this perception of a plentiful resource is changing rapidly as communities across the country begin to face limitations in fresh water supply. This scarcity of water, coupled with population growth, is driving competition for fresh water between people and power plants. Two frequently used methods of reducing fresh water consumption at power plants are to: 1) replace fresh water with water of degraded quality, and 2) increase the internal recycling of water within the plant. Both of these water conservation methods are technically challenging to evaluate and require affordable tools that can perform the necessary calculations. This paper describes a new chemistry based toolset that enables power industry personnel to build inexpensive yet sophisticated water balance models that are extremely useful for evaluating water saving alternatives.
Computer Modeling Of Blended Streams for Water Reuse and Discharge Robert J. Ferguson and Baron R Ferguson, French Creek Software, Inc 2010
Abstract: Optimizing water usage within a facility is a formidable task. Mixing of available water sources within a plant can help to minimize discharge. Computer modeling of blended streams and their impact upon maximum cycles and treatment options is discussed. Blending of streams such as RO concentrates and cooling tower blowdown can also minimize water discharge. Modeling of injection wells for discharge is described. A visual chemistry approach is used for data presentation to clearly define options and safe ranges.
An Integrated Approach to Water Reuse Pete Elliott and Gary Geiger, GE Water and Process Technologies 2009
Abstract: Limited water resources combined with wastewater discharge concerns have made water reuse a growing focus of the industry. Industrial cooling towers have long been seen as an ideal repository for wastewater because of the large volumes of water necessary for evaporative cooling. However, the use of wastewater as a source of cooling tower makeup water can result in significant corrosion, deposition and biological fouling issues. To address these issues at a major corn processing plant, a creative combination of mechanical and chemical approaches was employed to make a process wastewater suitable for use as cooling tower makeup water. This paper will discuss both the approach to the wastewater pretreatment and the chemical treatment used as the cooling tower.
Water Reuse in Cooling Towers - Current Experiences and Guidelines for Success in Refineries, Power Plants, and HVAC Systems Paul Puckorius, Puckorius and Associates 2008
Abstract: Water reuse in cooling tower systems is a growing trend and future requirements for fresh water conservation. Reuse of municipal waste water effluent has shown to provide numerous advantages in addition to water conservation. Case histories will provide data on water and chemical treatment cost reductions as well as waste water reduction and improved cooling system protection. Examples will be given of cooling tower systems in petroleum refineries utility power stations and air conditioning systems. Guide lines for successful water reuse are based on recent documentation throughout the USA and will be included in the paper.
Recycled Water for Cooling 4000oF Melted Sand Dr. Marcus N. Allhands and Tom Broderick, Orival, Inc. 2008
Abstract: Using recycled water for cooling molds and vacuum pumps in a Kentucky glass factory was tried and failed. So, municipal water was used once again as a cool heat sink at a hot price -- ,000 a month hot. After investigating new recycle options, a new water treatment system was installed in the fall of 2006 resulting in a full payback in just 33 days. Nearly 10% of the world's incandescent light bulbs are blow in this facility utilizing 1-2.5 MGD of recycled water contributing to the conservation of valuable potable water. This manuscript tells how this was done along with the benefits and hazards.
Efficient One Step Phosphorous and Suspended Solids Removal from Municipal Wastewater Ben Gould, Ashbrook Simon-Hartley and Clarence Melancon, Water Filtration Technologies 2007
Abstract: Reuse of municipal wastewater for cooling tower makeup is increasing in popularity, as it can meet multiple requirements imposed by environmental, regulatory, political and economic factors. The ability to efficiently and economically remove suspended solids and nutrients in a single step is realized by using a gravity driven, downflow, continuous operation, graded media filter. Suspended solids and phosphorous removal at levels greater than 90% is achieved, with effective particle filtration to five microns. Using no moving parts, the filter operational reliability is high and the operation and maintenance costs are extremely low.
Evaluation into the use of Mine Drainage to Supplement Cooling Water Dr. A Harriram and D.G. Nieuwenhuis, Sasol Technology 2005
Abstract: The Sasol petrochemical complex located in Secunda, South Africa operates the world's largest coal to synthesis gas conversion process. Expansion projects have resulted in an increase in cooling water requirements which is difficult in this water short catchment. Conversely, drainage water continuously accumulating in old coal mine workings is a growing liability. In an effort to balance the supply and demand within the complex, investigations were initiated into the use of min drainage water. The mine drainage contains amongst others, elevated concentrations of Calcium (~ 250 mg/l), Magnesium (~ 150 mg/l), and Sulphate (~ 2,955 mg/l) as well as trace quantities of iron and manganese. The addition of up to 12% of such mine drainage water to a cooling medium could tender the blend highly conducive to fouling, scaling and corrosion. Pilot scale cooling towers were operated over a twelve month period and the results including the limitations observed will be discussed.
Control of Resistant Bacteria in Recirculating Water Systems Dr. Chris L. Wiatr, Buckman Laboratories, Inc. 2005
Abstract: Bacteria are everywhere in recirculating cooling water systems. Controlling bacterial populations in the bulk water and on cooling system surfaces is necessary to maintain and operate the cooling system properly. Control of micro organisms in the field requires successful application of biocide agents. However, bacterial resistance to biocides is inevitable and irreversible, a natural consequence of bacterial adaptation to exposure to anti microbials. This paper presents mechanisms of bacterial resistance to anti microbials, strategies for overcoming resistant cell populations, and a supportive case history using biocides successfully against resistance bacteria.
Monitoring Cooling Water for Potential Reuse Phil Kiser, Hach Company 2005
Abstract: With decreasing water supplies in most industrialized areas of the United States, cooling water discharges are being studied for potential reuse applications. Serious concerns exist among potential reuse water recipients due to the perceived content of this water. Health concerns and aesthetic concerns impact any reuse decision. One key way of alleviating these concerns and making quick decisions concerning the quality of the water is using real time analytical instrumentation. Advances in online testing and online instrumentation allowing quick decisions about the quality of these waters. This paper will discuss the analysis of these waters and instrumentation that allows careful monitoring to be achieved.
Denver's Cooling Tower Water Conservation Program Paul R. Puckorius and David A. Puckorius - Puckorius and Associates, Inc.
Jim Reed - Denver Water
Abstract: The Denver Water Board has initiated a cooling tower water audit program. The purpose of this program is to identify if and to what extent water conservation is possible through optimizing cooling tower system operation. This paper provides the results of these audits to date. It includes the water savings that have been identified along with specific data on water quality that could be maintained. Over 700 cooling towers could be involved to help reduce Denver's drought condition. There will also be a brief review of the Denver Water Board's time schedule for water rate increases and their overall program for water conservation.
Water Reuse Experiences With Cooling Tower Systems in San Antonio, Texas Paul R. Puckorius, Puckorius & Associates, Inc. and Ken Diehl, San Antonio Water System 2003
Abstract: Water reuse studies in pilot plant cooling tower system were conducted that showed major benefits over use of aquifer fresh water supplies. Actual case histories are reviewed which identify the fresh water and chemical savings, as well as other items to consider with reclaimed water in cooing tower water systems. Comparison of fresh and reclaimed water use in San Antonio provides some guidelines for other potential users to consider.
Cooling Tower System Components and the Impact of Reuse Waters. Paul R. Puckorius, Puckorius & Associates, Inc. 2002
Abstract: The increase in reuse waters replacing fresh water supplies in cooling tower systems requires an understanding of potential impacts on cooling tower and heat exchange equipment. This paper identifies those reuse water ingredients that impact on scale, fouling, corrosion, and biological concerns. It identifies those components that are impacted, depending upon their materials of construction and location in the cooling system. Guidelines are provided as to what are potential problems and corrective measures. Several case histories are provided.
Water Reuse in refineries, Chemical Plants, and Utilities: Experiences Throughout the USA and Texas - Guidelines and Case Histories Paul R. Puckorius, Gary A. Loretitsch, Torry Tvedt, Puckorius & Associates, Inc. 2001
Abstract: Water reuse has been successful and cost effective in cooling water and boiler water systemswhen properly planned and matched with system operation and materials of construction. Specific guidelines are provided for cooling and boiler water systems and treatment requirements.Case histories throughout the USA and Texas illustrated specific experiences and results in system protection.
Water Conservation via New Cooling Water Technology Nicholas J. Alfano, Calgon Corp., Dennis J. Sherren, Enron Power Corp. 1995
Abstract: A substantial portion of the annual cooling water treatment costs at Enron Power Corporation in Texas City, Texas include the acquisition of makeup water and the disposal of blowdown. This paper describes how the application of a newly developed high cycle cooling water treatment program directly resulted in a substantial savings in water use and overall cooling water treatment costs while maintaining scale and corrosion control. The cooling water treatment program is designed to control CaCO3 scaling at Langelier Saturation Index values approaching +3.5.
Re-Use of Reclaimed Municipal Waste Water as Cooling Water Make-Up - Challenges and Solutions Narasimha M. Rao, Nalco Chemical Company 1995
Abstract: High levels of total dissolved solids, ammonia, phosphate and organic impurities characterize municipal wastewaters. This paper presents results of an in depth laboratory and on-site study investigating the use of tertiary treated municipal effluent as cooling water make-up. The corrosion, fouling and microbiological challenges unique to this water are analyzed and solutions presented. An analysis of the various components of the cost for treating this water is presented.
Reclaimed Water as Cooling Tower Makeup for Refinery/Petrochemical Plants - Southern California's Activities and Time Table Paul R. Puckorius, Puckorius & Associates, Inc., Kris Helm, West Basin Municipal Water Dist., Chris Spurrell, Chevron U.S.A. 1995
Abstract: The use of Title 22 Reclaimed Sewage Plant Effluent as Cooling Tower Make-up in Place of Fresh water is an important milestone. Its use, in place of fresh water, requires critical considerations for successful and economical applications. The details of how reuse should be considered, how it has been evaluated, and the required treatment considerations are provided in this presentation.
Reuse of Industrial Waste Stream as Cooling Tower Makeup Everett C. Phillips & Richard J Strittmatter, Nalco Chemical Co., 1994
Abstract: Decreasing water supplies, increasing government regulations, and community awareness compel industry to consider water reuse. With their high water demand and relatively low water quality requirements, open recirculating cooling water systems are often consider ideal candidates for reusing industrial waste streams. However, contaminants in the waste streams frequently present new and significant challenges in corrosion control, scale control, and microbiological control. Overcoming these difficulties requires investigation of the various pretreatment options and internal treatment programs. The optimum combination can result in significant water and dollars savings while still providing excellent protection of the cooling water system. Recent practical applications of reuse of industrial waste streams as cooling tower make-up will be presented.
Innovative Thinking in Water Conservation Mikel E. Goldblatt, Betz Ind'l 1994
Abstract: Two non-traditional examples of water reuse are presented, illustrating the value of innovative thinking in addressing specific water conservation challenges. Case 1 illustrates the se of a large cooling system as a repository for demineralizer waste. Normally this is not done, due to this stream's high salinity. However, the overriding objective of minimizing wastewater, and the establishment of protective measures allowed for successful reuse of this stream at minimal risk. Case 2 illustrates the benefits of cascading cooling water from a system containing barometric condensers as makeup to another cooling system, thus maximizing reuse of medium quality cooling water.
Water Reuse Within a Refinery (TP-93-09) K.S. Eble & J. Feathers, Betz Industrial 1993
Abstract: Before water reuse can be optimized within a refinery, all process water streams and utility water streams must be identified and their contaminants must be characterized. The streams can then be mixed and matched to minimize total refinery water use, water discharge, and water treatment. The cooling system is typically the largest consumer of water within a refinery, and consequently, it is the most likely place to reuse water. This paper identifies many process water streams found in a refinery, characterizes their contaminants, and compares those characteristics with the level of contaminants which can be successfully treated in the cooling system.

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