CTI Bibliography of Technical Papers - Winter Operation

Revised 2012

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Winter Operation
Order NumberTitleAuthorDate
Safe Cooling Tower Winter Operation Michel Monjoie, Monjoie Cooling 2012
Abstract: Cooling tower freezing may damage the internal or even the structure of the cooling tower with the consequences in repair cost and degrade thermal performance. The paper describes the existing winter protection devices and procedure to avoid freezing damages in cooling tower: natural draft; fan assisted natural draft, mechanical draft, in relation with the air temperature and heat load. It covers the maintenance rules and check list to avoid uncontrolled freezing. It gives procedure for safe cold start up during winter.
Cold Weather Operating Guidelines and Experience for Natural Draft Cooling Towers on the American Electric Power System Frank L. Michell, Dan H. Drew American Electric Power 1996
Abstract: American Electric Power's more than 30 years of experience in operating natural draft cooling towers during freezing winter weather conditions is discussed in the paper. Design features incorporated into the specifications for major rebuild/repack projects for crossflow and counterflow towers to facilitate cold weather operation are also reviewed.
Antifreezing System on Natural Draft Crossflow Cooling Towers - Cattenom Nuclear Plant (TP-88-18) Jean Barbaud, Electricite de France 1988
Abstract: Circulating water-cooling to Cattenom nuclear plant (PWR 44 1300 MWe) is provided by four natural draft crossflow cooling towers. The antifreezing system uses mechanical shutters, completed by the icing of a wire grid at the bottom of the air inlet. The information gathered last winter does not indicate serious problems. It should now be possible to modulate the shutter position in order to optimize the cold-water temperature.
Cold Weather Operation of Mechanical Draft Cooling Towers (TP-84-09) N.E. Dolan, Ecodyne Cooling Products 1984
Abstract: Annually, millions of dollars are spent in repairing ice damaged cooling towers. Most of this damage could have been avoided had reasonable cold weather operating procedures been in effect. This paper presents a guideline for the development and implementation of cold weather operating procedures for evaporative cooling towers. Emphasis is placed on the preparation of the tower and its operating personnel for winter operating conditions. The theory of tower icing is discussed, as well as the methods available for its prevention. Graphic data is also presented to demonstrate the value of various winter modes of operation.
Criteria For Ice Prevention in Counterflow Natural Draft Cooling Towers (TP-214A) John W. Cooper, Jr., Zurn Industries, Inc. 1980
Abstract: Thermal analysis is presented for calculation of parameters for ice prevention. Photographs of operating towers will highlight icing problems.
Paper on Winterizing Cooling Towers (TP-75A) Milton Epstein, Industrial Engr. & Equipment Company 1969

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