CTI Bibliography of Technical Papers - Zero Discharge

Revised 1993

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Zero Discharge
Order NumberTitleAuthorDate
Chemical Approaches to Zero Blowdown Operation (TP-93-05) G.E. Geiger & M.R.Hatch, Betz Industrial, J. Ogg, Stanford Linear Accelerator 1993
Abstract: Complying with increasingly stringent water discharge limitations has forced a re-examination of current cooling water treatment practices. Plants faced with severe effluent restrictions have looked to high cycle or zero-blowdown is discussed in light of current phosphonate/polymer technology and a newly developed non-phosphorus scale control additive. Experiences with treatment programs operating with (pH 7.5-8.0) and without (pH 8.8-9.2) pH control at 40+ cycles of concentration are documented. Field-testing over an 18-month period has identified two viable approaches to zero-blowdown (high eyolo) operation.
Recent Developments in the Operation of Industrial Cooling Tower Systems with Zero Blowdown (TP-89-13) Jack P. Wetherell & Norman D. Fahrer, ChemTreat, Inc. 1989
Abstract: This paper is based on 6-7 years of field experience with zero blowdown systems. Steps for achieving higher tower rate cycles and monitoring systems results are explained. Multiple case histories covering the following cooling tower waters are included: 1) Unsoftened surface or well water makeup, 2) Partially softened makeup water, and 3) 100% softened makeup water without pH control. The remarkable results obtained with all of these makeup waters are outlined in this paper. In terms of fouling and corrosion control, treatments costs, water conservation and environmental impact, this technology is on the leading edge of current water treatment programs.
Staged Cooling at Signaal/Shasta a High Recycle Evaporative Cooling Technique for Cost Effective Zero Discharge (TP-88-02) Richard L. Lancaster & W.G. Sanderson, Zurn/Nepco 1988
Abstract: Signal/Shasta is a 55 MW waste wood burning power plant located in Northern California. Plant water comes from on-site wells and is high in silica. The plant is a zero wastewater discharge design. The cooling water system at the Signal/Shasta power plant is a state of the art, water conserving, cost effective, and energy efficient design. The system totally utilizes all process water entering the plant and there is no waste stream discharge at the plant boundary limits. Total plant water usage averages 700 GPM. The final affluent is 1.8 GPM that is consumed in the ash conditioning process. The system design uses conventional techniques in a patented process to achieve 350 concentration cycles of incoming water. Two separate and segregated cooling systems are used to evaporate 99.5% of the incoming water flow without the use of solar ponds or high-energy evaporation systems. This high water utilization is the result of leverage on concentration cycles obtained by staged cooling. This paper describes the system in detail.
Pilot Demonstration of the Binary cooling Tower Zero Discharge at the Sunrise Station (TP-215A) Rickie M. Slate, Nevada Power Co., Craig Zeien, CH2M Hill, William G. Sanderson, Tower Systems, Inc. 1980
Abstract: An "MCT Process" pilot plant demonstration was held at the Sunrise Station of Nevada Power. Sponsors were Nevada Power Company, EPRI and West Associates. This process utilizes heat from the primary cooling water to concentrate blowdown water.
Use of Brackish Water in a Zero Discharge Cooling System (TP-223A) H. Bydalek, K.F. Hass, C.R.Mann & L.R. LePage, Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation 1980
Abstract: A pilot plant was operated for a period of twelve months to demonstrate that brackish agricultural run off water could be used as makeup in a closed loop, zero discharge mechanical draft cooling system. The makeup and sidestream water treatment system and the circulating water system were simulated on a scale of 1/1000 of the actual 500,000 GPM cooling system. The paper discusses treatment system optimization, circulating water chemistry, heat transfer efficiency and the results fo an extensive corrosion testing program.
The Role of Cooling Water Systems and Water Treatment in Achieving Zero Discharge (TP-118A) Ernest Q. Petrey, Jr., Petrolite Corporation 1973

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